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Anticholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, January 2018
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (55th percentile)

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4 tweeters

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17 Dimensions

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Title
Anticholinergic medication for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, January 2018
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd000204.pub2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Hanna Bergman, Karla Soares-Weiser

Abstract

Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with serious mental illnesses. However, it is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders. Because of this, many people treated with antipsychotic medication also receive anticholinergic drugs in order to reduce some of the associated movement side-effects. However, there is also a suggestion from animal experiments that the chronic administration of anticholinergics could cause tardive dyskinesia. To determine whether the use or the withdrawal of anticholinergic drugs (benzhexol, benztropine, biperiden, orphenadrine, procyclidine, scopolamine, or trihexylphenidyl) are clinically effective for the treatment of people with both antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and schizophrenia or other chronic mental illnesses. We retrieved 712 references from searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials including the registries of clinical trials (16 July 2015 and 26 April 2017). We also inspected references of all identified studies for further trials and contacted authors of trials for additional information. We included reports identified in the search if they were controlled trials dealing with people with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness who had been randomly allocated to (a) anticholinergic medication versus placebo (or no intervention), (b) anticholinergic medication versus any other intervention for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia, or (c) withdrawal of anticholinergic medication versus continuation of anticholinergic medication. We independently extracted data from included trials and we estimated risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assumed that people who left early had no improvement. We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. The previous version of this review included no trials. We identified two trials that could be included from the 2015 and 2017 searches. They randomised 30 in- and outpatients with schizophrenia in the USA and Germany. Overall, the risk of bias was unclear, mainly due to poor reporting: allocation concealment was not described; generation of the sequence was not explicit; studies were not clearly blinded; and outcome data were not fully reported.Findings were sparse. One study reported on the primary outcomes and found that significantly more participants allocated to procyclidine (anticholinergic) had not improved to a clinically important extent compared with those allocated to isocarboxazid (MAO-inhibitor) after 40 weeks' treatment (1 RCT, n = 20; RR 4.20, 95% CI 1.40 to 12.58; very low quality evidence); that there was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of any adverse effects (1 RCT, n = 20; RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.02 to 7.32; very low quality evidence); or acceptability of treatment (measured by participants leaving the study early) (1 RCT, n = 20; RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.02 to 7.32; very low quality evidence). The other trial compared anticholinergic withdrawal with anticholinergic continuation and found no evidence of a difference in the incidence of acceptability of treatment (measured by participants leaving the study early) (1 RCT, n = 10; RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.11 to 42.52; very low quality evidence).No trials reported on social confidence, social inclusion, social networks, or personalised quality of life - outcomes designated important to patients. No studies comparing either i. anticholinergics with placebo or no treatment, or ii. studies of anticholinergic withdrawal, were found that reported on the primary outcome 'no clinically important improvement in TD symptoms and adverse events'. Based on currently available evidence, no confident statement can be made about the effectiveness of anticholinergics to treat people with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. The same applies for the withdrawal of such medications. Whether the withdrawal of anticholinergics may benefit people with antipsychotic-induced TD should be evaluated in a parallel-group, placebo-controlled randomised trial, with adequate sample size and at least 6 weeks of follow-up.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 89 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 89 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 15 17%
Other 12 13%
Student > Bachelor 12 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 11%
Student > Doctoral Student 7 8%
Other 16 18%
Unknown 17 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 25 28%
Nursing and Health Professions 10 11%
Psychology 8 9%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 6 7%
Social Sciences 4 4%
Other 10 11%
Unknown 26 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 20 March 2018.
All research outputs
#6,866,420
of 12,680,099 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#7,954
of 10,395 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#145,612
of 343,129 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#152
of 198 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,680,099 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 10,395 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.2. This one is in the 22nd percentile – i.e., 22% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 343,129 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 55% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 198 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 20th percentile – i.e., 20% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.