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Imiquimod inhibits growth and induces differentiation of myeloid leukemia cell lines

Overview of attention for article published in Cancer Cell International, January 2018
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Title
Imiquimod inhibits growth and induces differentiation of myeloid leukemia cell lines
Published in
Cancer Cell International, January 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12935-018-0515-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Eva Villamón, Javier González-Fernández, Esperanza Such, José Vicente Cervera, Daniel Gozalbo, M. Luisa Gil

Abstract

The antitumoral effects of different Toll-like receptor (TLRs) agonists is mediated by activating immune responses to suppress tumors growth, although TLR ligands may also have a direct effect on tumoral cells. Given that TLR signaling induces hematopoietic cell differentiations this may serve as a novel differentiation therapeutic approach for AML. We investigated the effects of agonists for the ten human TLRs on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation of ten different types of myeloid leukemia cell lines (HL-60, U-937, KG-1, KG-1a, K-562, Kasumi-1, EOL-1, NB4, MOLM-13 and HEL). Proliferation was measured using the CellTiter 96® Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega). Staining and analysis with a flow cytometer was used to identify cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Differentiation was measured by staining cells with the EuroFlow™ antibody panel for AML and analyzed by flow cytometry. FlowJo software was used to analyze the cytometric data. In all experiments, statistical significance was determined by a two-tailed t test. The activation of particular TLRs on some cell lines can induce growth inhibition and Imiquimod (a TLR 7 agonist) was the most effective agonist in all leukemic cell lines examined. Imiquimod was able to induce apoptosis, as well as to induce cell cycle alteration and upregulation of myeloid differentiation markers on some of the cell lines tested. Our results, together with the known efficacy of Imiquimod against many tumor entities, suggest that Imiquimod can be a potential alternative therapy to AML. This drug has a direct cytotoxic effect on leukemic cells, has the potential to induce differentiation, and can also stimulate the activation of cellular immune responses anti-AML.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 8 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 8 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 3 38%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 13%
Student > Postgraduate 1 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 13%
Student > Master 1 13%
Other 1 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Immunology and Microbiology 3 38%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 25%
Business, Management and Accounting 1 13%
Unspecified 1 13%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 13%
Other 0 0%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 31 January 2018.
All research outputs
#9,962,218
of 12,444,666 outputs
Outputs from Cancer Cell International
#245
of 469 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#245,948
of 339,186 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cancer Cell International
#5
of 9 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,444,666 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 469 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.9. This one is in the 24th percentile – i.e., 24% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 339,186 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 9 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 4 of them.