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There are only four basic modes of cell death, although there are many ad-hoc variants adapted to different situations

Overview of attention for article published in Cell & Bioscience, February 2018
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Title
There are only four basic modes of cell death, although there are many ad-hoc variants adapted to different situations
Published in
Cell & Bioscience, February 2018
DOI 10.1186/s13578-018-0206-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Xingde Liu, Wenxiu Yang, Zhizhong Guan, Wenfeng Yu, Bin Fan, Ningzhi Xu, D. Joshua Liao

Abstract

There have been enough cell death modes delineated in the biomedical literature to befuddle all cell death researchers. Mulling over cell death from the viewpoints of the host tissue or organ and of the host animal, we construe that there should be only two physiological cell death modes, i.e. apoptosis and senescent death (SD), as well as two pathological modes, i.e. necrosis and stress-induced cell death (SICD). Other death modes described in the literature are ad-hoc variants or coalescences of some of these four basic ones in different physiological or pathological situations. SD, SICD and necrosis kill useful cells and will thus trigger regeneration, wound healing and probably also scar formation. SICD and necrosis will likely instigate inflammation as well. Apoptosis occurs as a mechanism to purge no-longer useful cells from a tissue via phagocytosis by cells with phagocytic ability that are collectively tagged by us as scavengers, including macrophages; therefore apoptosis is not followed by regeneration and inflammation. The answer for the question of "who dies" clearly differentiates apoptosis from SD, SICD and necrosis, despite other similarities and disparities among the four demise modes. Apoptosis cannot occur in cell lines in vitro, because cell lines are immortalized by reprogramming the death program of the parental cells, because in culture there lack scavengers and complex communications among different cell types, and because culture condition is a stress to the cells. Several issues of cell death that remain enigmatic to us are also described for peers to deliberate and debate.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 47 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 47 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 19%
Researcher 9 19%
Student > Master 7 15%
Student > Bachelor 6 13%
Unspecified 2 4%
Other 6 13%
Unknown 8 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 14 30%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 8 17%
Medicine and Dentistry 4 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 2%
Psychology 1 2%
Other 6 13%
Unknown 13 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 02 February 2018.
All research outputs
#11,982,709
of 15,059,695 outputs
Outputs from Cell & Bioscience
#232
of 402 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#262,637
of 362,827 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cell & Bioscience
#1
of 1 outputs
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