In order to discover new strategies to replace antibiotics in the post-antibiotic era in meat-type chicken production, two new synbiotics were tested: (Lactobacillus salivarius IBB3154 plus galactooligosaccharide (Syn1) and Lactobacillus plantarum IBB3036 plus raffinose family oligosaccharides (Syn2).
The synbiotics were administered via syringe, using a special automatic system, into the egg air chamber of Cobb 500 broiler chicks on the 12th day of egg incubation (2 mg of prebiotics + 105 cfu bacteria per egg). Hatched roosters (total 2,400) were reared on an experimental farm, kept in pens (75 animals per pen), with free access to feed and water. After 42 d animals were slaughtered. Blood serum, pancreas, duodenum and duodenum content were collected.
Syn2 increased trypsin activity by 2.5-fold in the pancreas and 1.5-fold in the duodenal content. In the duodenum content, Syn2 resulted in ca 30% elevation in lipase activity and 70% reduction in amylase activity. Syn1 and Syn2 strongly decreased expression of mRNA for GLP-1 and GIP in the duodenum and for GLP-1 receptors in the pancreas. Simultaneously, concentrations of the incretins significantly diminished in the blood serum (P < 0.05). The decreased expression of incretins coincides with changed activity of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and in the duodenal content. The results indicate that incretins are involved in the action of Syn1 and Syn2 or that they may even be their target. No changes were observed in key hormones regulating metabolism (insulin, glucagon, corticosterone, thyroid hormones, and leptin) or in metabolic indices (glucose, NEFA, triglycerides, cholesterol). Additionally, synbiotics did not cause significant changes in the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in broiler chickens. Simultaneously, the activity of alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase diminished after Syn2 and Syn1, respectively.
The selected synbiotics may be used as in ovo additives for broiler chickens, and Syn2 seems to improve their potential digestive proteolytic and lipolytic ability. Our results suggest that synbiotics can be directly or indirectly involved in incretin secretion and reception.