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Frankincense and myrrh essential oils and burn incense fume against micro-inhabitants of sacral ambients. Wisdom of the ancients?

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2018
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (90th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (96th percentile)

Mentioned by

twitter
23 tweeters
facebook
5 Facebook pages
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page
googleplus
1 Google+ user
video
1 video uploader

Citations

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14 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
59 Mendeley
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Title
Frankincense and myrrh essential oils and burn incense fume against micro-inhabitants of sacral ambients. Wisdom of the ancients?
Published in
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2018
DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2018.03.003
Pubmed ID
Authors

Milica Ljaljević Grbić, Nikola Unković, Ivica Dimkić, Peđa Janaćković, Milan Gavrilović, Olja Stanojević, Miloš Stupar, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Aleksa Jelikić, Slaviša Stanković, Jelena Vukojević

Abstract

Essential oils obtained from resins of Boswellia carteri Birdw. and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., commonly known as frankincense and true myrrh respectively, have been used extensively since 2800 BCE for the treatment of skin sores, wounds, teeth, inflammation, and urinary tract diseases in traditional medicine; for preparation of mummification balms and unguents; and also as incense and perfumes. Since ancient times, burning of frankincense and myrrh in places of worship for spiritual purposes and contemplation (a ubiquitous practice across various religions) had hygienic functions, to refine the smell and reduce contagion by purifying the indoor air. The general purpose of the study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential of the liquid and vapour phases of B. carteri and C. myrrha essential oils and burn incense, as well as to test the effectiveness of their in situ application to cleanse microbially-contaminated air within the ambient of an investigated 17th-century church. The chemical composition of B. carteri and C. myrrha essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation of frankincense and true myrrh oleo gum resins was determined using GC/MS, and antimicrobial properties of their liquid and vapour phases were assessed by the broth microdilution and microatmosphere diffusion methods. Chemical analysis of burn incense fume obtained using bottle gas washing with dichloromethane as a solvent was performed by GC/MS, while its antimicrobial activity was evaluated using a modified microatmosphere diffusion method to evaluate germination inhibition for fungi and CFU count reduction for bacteria. The in situ antimicrobial activity of B. carteri burn incense and essential oil vapour phase was assessed in the sealed nave and diaconicon of the church, respectively. The dominant compounds of B. carteri EO were α-pinene (38.41%) and myrcene (15.21%), while C. myrrha EO was characterized by high content of furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (17.65%), followed by curzerene (12.97%), β-elemene (12.70%), and germacrene B (12.15%). Burn incense fume and soot had α-pinene (68.6%) and incensole (28.6%) as the most dominant compounds, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial assays demonstrated high bacterial and fungal sensitivity to the liquid and vapour phases of EOs, and burn incense fume. In situ application of B. carteri EO vapour and incense fume resulted in reduction of air-borne viable microbial counts by up to 45.39 ± 2.83% for fungi and 67.56 ± 3.12% for bacteria (EO); and by up to 80.43 ± 2.07% for fungi and 91.43 ± 1.26% for bacteria (incense fume). The antimicrobial properties of essential oil derived from frankincense, a compound with well-known traditional use, showed that it possesses a clear potential as a natural antimicrobial agent. Moreover, the results suggest possible application of B. carteri EO vapour and incense fume as occasional air purifiers in sacral ambients, apart from daily church rituals.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 23 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 59 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 59 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 8 14%
Other 6 10%
Researcher 6 10%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 10%
Student > Master 5 8%
Other 11 19%
Unknown 17 29%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 19%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 14%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 8%
Chemistry 3 5%
Engineering 2 3%
Other 11 19%
Unknown 19 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 26. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 09 October 2021.
All research outputs
#1,048,974
of 19,311,167 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Ethnopharmacology
#165
of 5,736 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#27,525
of 292,020 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Ethnopharmacology
#4
of 84 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,311,167 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,736 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.2. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 292,020 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 84 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its contemporaries.