PIP Kinases from the Cell Membrane to the Nucleus.
Phosphoinositides I: Enzymes of Synthesis and Degradation
Sub cellular biochemistry, March 2012
Schramp M, Hedman A, Li W, Tan X, Anderson R, Mark Schramp, Andrew Hedman, Weimin Li, Xiaojun Tan, Richard Anderson
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is a membrane bound lipid molecule with capabilities to affect a wide array of signaling pathways to regulate very different cellular processes. PIP(2) is used as a precursor to generate the second messengers PIP(3), DAG and IP(3), indispensable molecules for signaling events generated by membrane receptors. However, PIP(2) can also directly regulate a vast array of proteins and is emerging as a crucial messenger with the potential to distinctly modulate biological processes critical for both normal and pathogenic cell physiology. PIP(2) directly associates with effector proteins via unique phosphoinositide binding domains, altering their localization and/or enzymatic activity. The spatial and temporal generation of PIP(2) synthesized by the phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) tightly regulates the activation of receptor signaling pathways, endocytosis and vesicle trafficking, cell polarity, focal adhesion dynamics, actin assembly and 3' mRNA processing. Here we discuss our current understanding of PIPKs in the regulation of cellular processes from the plasma membrane to the nucleus.
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