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Cognitive-behavioural interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, March 2018
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (95th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (85th percentile)

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1 news outlet
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70 tweeters
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4 Facebook pages

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Title
Cognitive-behavioural interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, March 2018
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd010840.pub2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Pablo Luis Lopez, Fernando Manuel Torrente, Agustín Ciapponi, Alicia Graciela Lischinsky, Marcelo Cetkovich-Bakmas, Juan Ignacio Rojas, Marina Romano, Facundo F Manes

Abstract

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, along with deficits in executive function, emotional regulation and motivation. The persistence of ADHD in adulthood is a serious clinical problem.ADHD significantly affects social interactions, study and employment performance.Previous studies suggest that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) could be effective in treating adults with ADHD, especially when combined with pharmacological treatment. CBT aims to change the thoughts and behaviours that reinforce harmful effects of the disorder by teaching people techniques to control the core symptoms. CBT also aims to help people cope with emotions, such as anxiety and depression, and to improve self-esteem. To assess the effects of cognitive-behavioural-based therapy for ADHD in adults. In June 2017, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, seven other databases and three trials registries. We also checked reference lists, handsearched congress abstracts, and contacted experts and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of CBT for adults with ADHD, either as a monotherapy or in conjunction with another treatment, versus one of the following: unspecific control conditions (comprising supportive psychotherapies, no treatment or waiting list) or other specific interventions. We used the standard methodological procedures suggested by Cochrane. We included 14 RCTs (700 participants), 13 of which were conducted in the northern hemisphere and 1 in Australia.Primary outcomes: ADHD symptomsCBT versus unspecific control conditions (supportive psychotherapies, waiting list or no treatment)- CBT versus supportive psychotherapies: CBT was more effective than supportive therapy for improving clinician-reported ADHD symptoms (1 study, 81 participants; low-quality evidence) but not for self-reported ADHD symptoms (SMD -0.16, 95% CI -0.52 to 0.19; 2 studies, 122 participants; low-quality evidence; small effect size).- CBT versus waiting list: CBT led to a larger benefit in clinician-reported ADHD symptoms (SMD -1.22, 95% CI -2.03 to -0.41; 2 studies, 126 participants; very low-quality evidence; large effect size). We also found significant differences in favour of CBT for self-reported ADHD symptoms (SMD -0.84, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.50; 5 studies, 251 participants; moderate-quality evidence; large effect size).CBT plus pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone: CBT with pharmacotherapy was more effective than pharmacotherapy alone for clinician-reported core symptoms (SMD -0.80, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.30; 2 studies, 65 participants; very low-quality evidence; large effect size), self-reported core symptoms (MD -7.42 points, 95% CI -11.63 points to -3.22 points; 2 studies, 66 participants low-quality evidence) and self-reported inattention (1 study, 35 participants).CBT versus other interventions that included therapeutic ingredients specifically targeted to ADHD: we found a significant difference in favour of CBT for clinician-reported ADHD symptoms (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.17; 2 studies, 97 participants; low-quality evidence; moderate effect size) and for self-reported ADHD symptom severity (SMD -0.44, 95% CI -0.88 to -0.01; 4 studies, 156 participants; low-quality evidence; small effect size).Secondary outcomesCBT versus unspecific control conditions: we found differences in favour of CBT compared with waiting-list control for self-reported depression (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.11; 5 studies, 258 participants; small effect size) and for self-reported anxiety (SMD -0.45, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.19; 4 studies, 239 participants; small effect size). We also observed differences in favour of CBT for self-reported state anger (1 study, 43 participants) and self-reported self-esteem (1 study 43 participants) compared to waiting list. We found no differences between CBT and supportive therapy (1 study, 81 participants) for self-rated depression, clinician-rated anxiety or self-rated self-esteem. Additionally, there were no differences between CBT and the waiting list for self-reported trait anger (1 study, 43 participants) or self-reported quality of life (SMD 0.21, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.71; 2 studies, 64 participants; small effect size).CBT plus pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone: we found differences in favour of CBT plus pharmacotherapy for the Clinical Global Impression score (MD -0.75 points, 95% CI -1.21 points to -0.30 points; 2 studies, 65 participants), self-reported depression (MD -6.09 points, 95% CI -9.55 points to -2.63 points; 2 studies, 66 participants) and self-reported anxiety (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -1.08 to -0.08; 2 studies, 66 participants; moderate effect size). We also observed differences favouring CBT plus pharmacotherapy (1 study, 31 participants) for clinician-reported depression and clinician-reported anxiety.CBT versus other specific interventions: we found no differences for any of the secondary outcomes, such as self-reported depression and anxiety, and findings on self-reported quality of life varied across different studies. There is low-quality evidence that cognitive-behavioural-based treatments may be beneficial for treating adults with ADHD in the short term. Reductions in core symptoms of ADHD were fairly consistent across the different comparisons: in CBT plus pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone and in CBT versus waiting list. There is low-quality evidence that CBT may also improve common secondary disturbances in adults with ADHD, such as depression and anxiety. However, the paucity of long-term follow-up data, the heterogeneous nature of the measured outcomes, and the limited geographical location (northern hemisphere and Australia) limit the generalisability of the results. None of the included studies reported severe adverse events, but five participants receiving different modalities of CBT described some type of adverse event, such as distress and anxiety.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 110 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 110 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 20 18%
Student > Master 19 17%
Unspecified 18 16%
Researcher 13 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 9 8%
Other 31 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 37 34%
Medicine and Dentistry 29 26%
Unspecified 22 20%
Nursing and Health Professions 6 5%
Social Sciences 6 5%
Other 10 9%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 57. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 November 2018.
All research outputs
#269,769
of 12,705,500 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#760
of 10,402 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#13,076
of 274,022 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#28
of 192 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,705,500 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 97th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 10,402 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 92% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 274,022 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 192 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 85% of its contemporaries.