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Calcium channel blockers for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, March 2018
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (72nd percentile)
  • Average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source

Mentioned by

twitter
7 tweeters
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page

Citations

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3 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
64 Mendeley
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Title
Calcium channel blockers for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, March 2018
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd000206.pub4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Adib Essali, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman, Clive E Adams

Abstract

Schizophrenia and related disorders affect a sizable proportion of any population. Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for these disorders. Antipsychotic medications are associated with a variety of adverse effects including tardive dyskinesia. Dyskinesia is a disfiguring movement disorder of the orofacial region that can be tardive (having a slow or belated onset). Tardive dyskinesia is difficult to treat, despite experimentation with several treatments. Calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine, verapamil, flunarizine) have been among these experimental treatments. To determine the effects of calcium channel blocker drugs (diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine, verapamil) for treatment of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or other chronic mental illnesses. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (July 2015 and April 2017), inspected references of all identified studies for further trials and contacted authors of trials for additional information. We selected randomised controlled trials comparing calcium channel blockers with placebo, no intervention or any other intervention for people with both tardive dyskinesia and schizophrenia or serious mental illness who remained on their antipsychotic medication. We independently extracted data and estimated risk ratios of dichotomous data or mean differences (MD) of continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assumed that people who left the trials early had no improvement. We also created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. Previous versions of this review included no trials. From the 2015 search, we identified three cross-over trials that could be included. The 2017 search found no new studies relevant to this review. The included trials randomised 47 inpatients with chronic mental illnesses in the USA and China. Trials were published in the 1990s and were of short duration (six to 10 weeks). Overall, the risk of bias was unclear, mainly due to poor reporting; allocation concealment was not described, generation of the sequence was not explicit, studies were not clearly blinded, and attrition and outcome data were not fully reported. Findings were sparse, no study reported on the primary outcome 'no clinically important improvement in tardive dyskinesia symptoms,' but two small studies (37 participants) found no difference on the tardive dyskinesia symptoms scale Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores between diltiazem or flunarizine and placebo after three to four weeks' treatment (MD -0.71, 95% CI -2.68 to 1.26, very low quality evidence). Only one study randomising 20 participants reported on adverse events, and reported that there were no adverse events with flunarizine or with placebo (very low quality evidence). One study with 18 participants reported no events of deterioration in mental state with diltiazem or with placebo (very low quality evidence). No studies reported on acceptability of treatment or on social confidence, social inclusion, social networks or personalised quality of life outcomes designated important to patients. Available evidence from randomised controlled trials is extremely limited and very low quality, conclusions cannot be drawn. The effects of calcium channel blockers for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia are unknown. Their use is experimental and should only be given in the context of well-designed randomised trials.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 7 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 64 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 64 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Unspecified 18 28%
Student > Master 14 22%
Other 7 11%
Student > Bachelor 6 9%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 9%
Other 13 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 23 36%
Medicine and Dentistry 17 27%
Psychology 7 11%
Nursing and Health Professions 6 9%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 4 6%
Other 7 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 6. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 17 June 2018.
All research outputs
#2,856,171
of 13,093,005 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#5,394
of 10,467 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#74,664
of 270,103 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#125
of 191 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,093,005 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 78th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 10,467 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.6. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 270,103 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 72% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 191 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 34th percentile – i.e., 34% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.