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Expanding the Vector Control Toolbox for Malaria Elimination: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

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Chapter title
Expanding the Vector Control Toolbox for Malaria Elimination: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
Published in
Advances in Parasitology, January 2018
DOI 10.1016/bs.apar.2018.01.003
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs

Yasmin A. Williams, Lucy S. Tusting, Sophia Hocini, Patricia M. Graves, Gerry F. Killeen, Immo Kleinschmidt, Fredros O. Okumu, Richard G.A. Feachem, Allison Tatarsky, Roly D. Gosling


Additional vector control tools (VCTs) are needed to supplement insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) to achieve malaria elimination in many settings. To identify options for expanding the malaria vector control toolbox, we conducted a systematic review of the availability and quality of the evidence for 21 malaria VCTs, excluding ITNs and IRS. Six electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched from January 1, 1980 to September 28, 2015 to identify systematic reviews, Phase I-IV studies, and observational studies that measured the effect of malaria VCTs on epidemiological or entomological outcomes across any age groups in all malaria-endemic settings. Eligible studies were summarized qualitatively, with quality and risk of bias assessments undertaken where possible. Of 17,912 studies screened, 155 were eligible for inclusion and were included in a qualitative synthesis. Across the 21 VCTs, we found considerable heterogeneity in the volume and quality of evidence, with 7 VCTs currently supported by at least one Phase III community-level evaluation measuring parasitologically confirmed malaria incidence or infection prevalence (insecticide-treated clothing and blankets, insecticide-treated hammocks, insecticide-treated livestock, larval source management (LSM), mosquito-proofed housing, spatial repellents, and topical repellents). The remaining VCTs were supported by one or more Phase II (n=13) or Phase I evaluation (n=1). Overall the quality of the evidence base remains greatest for LSM and topical repellents, relative to the other VCTs evaluated, although existing evidence indicates that topical repellents are unlikely to provide effective population-level protection against malaria. Despite substantial gaps in the supporting evidence, several VCTs may be promising supplements to ITNs and IRS in appropriate settings. Strengthening operational capacity and research to implement underutilized VCTs, such as LSM and mosquito-proofed housing, using an adaptive, learning-by-doing approach, while expanding the evidence base for promising supplementary VCTs that are locally tailored, should be considered central to global malaria elimination efforts.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 80 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 80 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 17 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 13%
Student > Master 10 13%
Other 5 6%
Student > Postgraduate 5 6%
Other 18 23%
Unknown 15 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 13 16%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 13%
Environmental Science 9 11%
Immunology and Microbiology 7 9%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 8%
Other 15 19%
Unknown 20 25%

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