Radioactive 75 Se Labeling and Detection of Selenoproteins
Methods in molecular biology, January 2018
Sun Hee Yim, Ryuta Tobe, Anton A. Turanov, Bradley A. Carlson, Yim, Sun Hee, Tobe, Ryuta, Turanov, Anton A., Carlson, Bradley A.
The trace element selenium (Se) is incorporated into proteins as the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), which is cotranslationally inserted into specific proteins in response to a UGA codon. Proteins containing Sec at these specific positions are called selenoproteins. Most selenoproteins function as oxidoreductases, while some serve other important functions. There are 25 known selenoprotein genes in humans and 24 in mice. The use of Sec allows selenoproteins to be detected by a convenient method involving metabolic labeling with (75)Se. Labeling of cells and whole animals are used for the examination of selenoprotein expression profiles and the investigation of selenoprotein functions. In mammals, nonspecific (75)Se insertion is very low, and sensitivity and specificity of selenoprotein detection approaches that of Western blotting. This method allows for the examination of selenoprotein expression and Se metabolism in model and non-model organisms. Herein, we describe experimental protocols for analyzing selenoproteins by metabolic labeling with (75)Se both in vitro and in vivo. As an example, the procedure for metabolic labeling of HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells is described in detail. This approach remains a method of choice for the detection of selenoproteins in diverse settings.
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