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Pathogen-Host Interactions: Antigenic Variation v. Somatic Adaptations

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Attention for Chapter 5: Fibrinogen-Related Proteins (FREPs) in Mollusks.
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Chapter title
Fibrinogen-Related Proteins (FREPs) in Mollusks.
Chapter number 5
Book title
Pathogen-Host Interactions: Antigenic Variation v. Somatic Adaptations
Published in
Results and problems in cell differentiation, January 2015
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-20819-0_5
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-920818-3, 978-3-31-920819-0
Authors

Adema, Coen M, Coen M. Adema

Abstract

Anti-parasite responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata involve antigen-reactive plasma lectins termed fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) comprising a C-terminal fibrinogen (FBG) domain and one or two upstream immunoglobulin domains. FREPs are highly polymorphic; they derive from several gene families with multiple loci and alleles that are diversified by exon loss, alternative splicing, and random somatic mutation (gene conversion and point mutations). Individual B. glabrata snails have dynamically distinct FREP sequence repertoires. The immune relevance of B. glabrata FREPs is indicated by FREP binding to polymorphic antigens of (snail-specific) digenean parasites and altered resistance of B. glabrata to digeneans following RNAi knockdown of FREPs. The compatibility polymorphism hypothesis proposes that FREP mutation increases the range of germline-encoded immune recognition in B. glabrata to counter antigenically-varied parasites. Somatic mutation may result from sequence exchange among tandemly arranged FREP genes in the genome, and analysis of sequence variants also suggests involvement of cytidine deaminase-like activity or epigenetic regulation. Without current indications of selection or retention of effective sequence variants toward immunological memory, FREP diversification is thought to afford B. glabrata immunity that is anticipatory but not adaptive. More remains to be learned about this system; other mollusks elaborate diversified lectins consisting of single FBG domains, and bona fide FREPs were reported from additional gastropod species, but these may not be diversified. Future comparative immunological studies and gene discovery driven by next-generation sequencing will further clarify taxonomic distribution of FREP diversification and the underlying mutator mechanisms as a component of immune function in mollusks.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 14 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 14 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 29%
Researcher 2 14%
Student > Bachelor 2 14%
Student > Master 2 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 7%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 3 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 36%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 36%
Engineering 1 7%
Unknown 3 21%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 17 April 2016.
All research outputs
#3,905,909
of 7,560,115 outputs
Outputs from Results and problems in cell differentiation
#45
of 99 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#125,599
of 241,877 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Results and problems in cell differentiation
#2
of 2 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,560,115 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 99 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 1.6. This one is in the 38th percentile – i.e., 38% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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