Unique Features of Fish Immune Repertoires: Particularities of Adaptive Immunity Within the Largest Group of Vertebrates.
Pathogen-Host Interactions: Antigenic Variation v. Somatic Adaptations
Results and problems in cell differentiation, January 2015
Magadan, Susana, Sunyer, Oriol J, Boudinot, Pierre, Susana Magadan, Oriol J. Sunyer, Pierre Boudinot
Fishes (i.e., teleost fishes) are the largest group of vertebrates. Although their immune system is based on the fundamental receptors, pathways, and cell types found in all groups of vertebrates, fishes show a diversity of particular features that challenge some classical concepts of immunology. In this chapter, we discuss the particularities of fish immune repertoires from a comparative perspective. We examine how allelic exclusion can be achieved when multiple Ig loci are present, how isotypic diversity and functional specificity impact clonal complexity, how loss of the MHC class II molecules affects the cooperation between T and B cells, and how deep sequencing technologies bring new insights about somatic hypermutation in the absence of germinal centers. The unique coexistence of two distinct B-cell lineages respectively specialized in systemic and mucosal responses is also discussed. Finally, we try to show that the diverse adaptations of immune repertoires in teleosts can help in understanding how somatic adaptive mechanisms of immunity evolved in parallel in different lineages across vertebrates.
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