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Hypoxia and Exercise

Overview of attention for book
Cover of 'Hypoxia and Exercise'

Table of Contents

  1. Altmetric Badge
    Book Overview
  2. Altmetric Badge
    Chapter 1 A Tribute to John Burden West
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    Chapter 2 Adventures in High-Altitude Physiology
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    Chapter 3 Exercise induced arterial hypoxemia: the role of ventilation-perfusion inequality and pulmonary diffusion limitation.
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    Chapter 4 Intrapulmonary Shunt During Normoxic and Hypoxic Exercise in Healthy Humans
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    Chapter 5 Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia: consequences for locomotor muscle fatigue.
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    Chapter 6 Mechanisms of Sleep Apnea at Altitude
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    Chapter 7 Control of cerebral blood flow during sleep and the effects of hypoxia.
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    Chapter 8 Neural consequences of sleep disordered breathing: the role of intermittent hypoxia.
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    Chapter 9 Finding the Genes Underlying Adaptation to Hypoxia Using Genomic Scans for Genetic Adaptation and Admixture Mapping
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    Chapter 10 An Evolutionary Model for Identifying Genetic Adaptation to High Altitude
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    Chapter 11 Hypoxic Preconditioning and Erythropoietin Protect Retinal Neurons from Degeneration
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    Chapter 12 Blocking Stress Signaling Pathways with Cell Permeable Peptides
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    Chapter 13 JNK Pathway as Therapeutic Target to Prevent Degeneration in the Central Nervous System
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    Chapter 14 Salvage Of Ischemic Myocardium: A Focus on JNK
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    Chapter 15 Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species are Required for Hypoxic HIFα Stabilization
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    Chapter 16 Hypoxia-Induced Gene Activity in Disused Oxidative Muscle
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    Chapter 17 Role of the Red Blood Cell in Nitric Oxide Homeostasis and Hypoxic Vasodilation
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    Chapter 18 Expression of the Heterotrimeric G Protein Gi and ATP Release are Impaired in Erythrocytes of Humans with Diabetes Mellitus
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    Chapter 19 Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin in Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction
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    Chapter 20 Dose-Response of Altitude Training: How Much Altitude is Enough?
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    Chapter 21 The eye at altitude.
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    Chapter 22 Lake Louise Consensus Methods for Measuring the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response
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    Chapter 23 Pulmonary Hypertension in High-Altitude Dwellers: Novel Mechanisms, Unsuspected Predisposing Factors
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    Chapter 24 Gene Hunting in Hypoxia and Exercise
Attention for Chapter 21: The eye at altitude.
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Chapter title
The eye at altitude.
Chapter number 21
Book title
Hypoxia and Exercise
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, January 2006
DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-34817-9_21
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-0-387-34816-2, 978-0-387-34817-9

Morris, Daniel S, Somner, John, Donald, Michael J, McCormick, Ian J C, Bourne, Rupert R A, Huang, Suber S, Aspinall, Peter, Dhillon, Baljean, Daniel S Morris, John Somner, Michael J Donald, Ian J C McCormick, Rupert R A Bourne, Suber S Huang, Peter Aspinall, Baljean Dhillon


High altitude retinopathy (HAR) was first described in 1969 as engorgement of retinal veins with occasional papilloedema and vitreous hemorrhage. Since then various studies have attempted to define the incidence, etiology and significance of this phenomenon, usually with small numbers of subjects. Recently studies on relatively large groups of subjects in Nepal, Bolivia and Tibet have confirmed that the retinal vasculature becomes engorged and tortuous in all lowlanders ascending above 2500m. Sometimes this leads to hemorrhages, cotton wool spots and papilloedema, which is the pathological state better known as high altitude retinopathy. These studies have also shown a significant change in both corneal thickness and intraocular pressure at altitude. The retinal blood vessels are the only directly observable vascular system in the human body and also supply some of the most oxygen-demanding tissue, the photoreceptors of the retina. New techniques are being applied in both hypobaric chamber and field expeditions to observe changes in retinal function during conditions of hypobaric hypoxia. This work allows better advice to be given to lowlanders traveling to altitude either if they have pre-existing ocular conditions or if they suffer from visual problems whilst at altitude. This especially applies to the effect of altitude on refractive eye surgery and results of recent studies will be discussed so that physicians can advise their patients using the latest evidence. Retinal hypoxia at sea level accounts for the developed world's largest cause of blindness, diabetic retinopathy. The investigation of retinal response to hypobaric hypoxia in healthy subjects may open new avenues for treatment of this debilitating disease.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 39 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Spain 1 3%
United States 1 3%
Unknown 37 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 8 21%
Student > Bachelor 6 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 13%
Student > Postgraduate 4 10%
Professor 4 10%
Other 10 26%
Unknown 2 5%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 20 51%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 10%
Social Sciences 3 8%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 3%
Business, Management and Accounting 1 3%
Other 5 13%
Unknown 5 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 October 2016.
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