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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 232

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Attention for Chapter 2: Biological Responses of Agricultural Soils to Fly-Ash Amendment
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Chapter title
Biological Responses of Agricultural Soils to Fly-Ash Amendment
Chapter number 2
Book title
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 232
Published in
Reviews of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, February 2016
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-06746-9_2
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-906745-2, 978-3-31-906746-9

Rajeev Pratap Singh, Bhavisha Sharma, Abhijit Sarkar, Chandan Sengupta, Pooja Singh, Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim


The volume of solid waste produced in the world is increasing annually, and disposing of such wastes is a growing problem. Fly ash (FA) is a form of solid waste that is derived from the combustion of coal. Research has shown that fly ash may be disposed of by using it to amend agricultural soils. This review addresses the feasibility of amending agricultural field soils with fly ash for the purpose of improvings oil health and enhancing the production of agricultural crops. The current annual production of major coal combustion residues (CCRs) is estimated to be -600 million worldwide, of which about 500 million t (70-80%) is FA (Ahmaruzzaman 2010). More than 112 million t of FA is generated annually in India alone, and projections show that the production (including both FA and bottom ash) may exceed 170 million t per annum by 2015 (Pandey et al. 2009; Pandey and Singh 20 I 0). Managing this industrial by-product is a big challenge, because more is produced each year, and disposal poses a growing environmental problem.Studies on FA clearly shows that its application as an amendment to agricultural soils can significantly improve soil quality, and produce higher soil fertility. What FA application method is best and what level of application is appropriate for any one soil depends on the following factors: type of soil treated, crop grown, the prevailing agro climatic condition and the character of the FA used. Although utilizing FA in agricultural soils may help address solid waste disposal problems and may enhance agricultural production, its use has potential adverse effects also. In particular, using it in agriculture may enhance amounts of radionuclides and heavy metals that reach soils, and may therefore increase organism exposures in some instances.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 27 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 27 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 5 19%
Student > Bachelor 4 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 15%
Student > Master 2 7%
Other 2 7%
Other 6 22%
Unknown 4 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Engineering 4 15%
Environmental Science 4 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 11%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 7%
Other 7 26%
Unknown 5 19%