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Healthy rabbits are susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus infection and infected cells proliferate in immunosuppressed animals

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, February 2015
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  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (69th percentile)
  • Average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source

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6 tweeters

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Title
Healthy rabbits are susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus infection and infected cells proliferate in immunosuppressed animals
Published in
Virology Journal, February 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12985-015-0260-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Gulfaraz Khan, Waqar Ahmed, Pretty S Philip, Mahmoud H Ali, Abdu Adem

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus implicated in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies. However, due to the lack of a suitable animal model, a number of fundamental questions pertaining to the biology of EBV remain poorly understood. Here, we explore the potential of rabbits as a model for EBV infection and investigate the impact of immunosuppression on viral proliferation and gene expression. Six healthy New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated intravenously with EBV and blood samples collected prior to infection and for 7 weeks post-infection. Three weeks after the last blood collection, animals were immunosuppressed with daily intramuscular injections of cyclosporin A at doses of 20 mg/kg for 15 days and blood collected twice a week from each rabbit. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and tissues from all major organs were collected for subsequent analysis. Following intravenous inoculation, all 6 rabbits seroconverted with raised IgG and IgM titres to EBV, but viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could only be detected intermittently. Following immunosuppression however, EBV DNA could be readily detected in PBMCs from all 4 rabbits that survived the treatment. Quantitative PCR indicated an increase in EBV viral load in PBMCs as the duration of immunosuppression increased. At autopsy, splenomegaly was seen in 3/4 rabbits, but spleens from all 4 rabbit were EBV PCR positive. EBER-in situ hybridization and immunoshistochemistry revealed the presence of a large number of EBER-positive and LMP-1 positive lymphoblasts in the spleens of 3/4 rabbits. To a lesser extent, EBER-positive cells were also seen in the portal tract regions of the liver of these rabbits. Western blotting indicated that EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 were also expressed in the liver and spleen of infected animals. EBV can infect healthy rabbits and the infected cells proliferate when the animals are immunocompromised. The infected cells expressed several EBV-latent gene products which are probably driving the proliferation, reminiscent of what is seen in immunocompromised individuals. Further work is required to explore the potential of rabbits as an animal model for studying EBV biology and tumorigenesis.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 6 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 9 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Japan 1 11%
Unknown 8 89%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 3 33%
Other 2 22%
Student > Master 2 22%
Lecturer 1 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 11%
Other 0 0%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 33%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 22%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 22%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 11%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 11%
Other 0 0%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 4. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 23 February 2015.
All research outputs
#2,469,287
of 9,370,416 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
#400
of 1,830 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#66,280
of 216,857 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
#24
of 49 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,370,416 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 73rd percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,830 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.4. This one has done well, scoring higher than 77% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 216,857 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 69% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 49 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.