Pork is the most popular meat in the world. Unfortunately, the selection pressure focused on high meat content led to a reduction in pork quality. The present study used RNA-seq technology to identify metabolic process genes related to pork quality traits and fat deposition. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between pigs of Pulawska and Polish Landrace breeds for two the most important muscles (semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi). A total of 71 significant DEGs were reported: 15 for longissimus dorsi and 56 for semimembranosus muscles. The genes overexpressed in Pulawska pigs were involved in lipid metabolism (APOD, LXRA, LIPE, AP2B1, ENSSSCG00000028753 and OAS2) and proteolysis (CST6, CTSD, ISG15 and UCHL1). In Polish Landrace pigs, genes playing a role in biological adhesion (KIT, VCAN, HES1, SFRP2, CDH11, SSX2IP and PCDH17), actin cytoskeletal organisation (FRMD6, LIMK1, KIF23 and CNN1) and calcium ion binding (PVALB, CIB2, PCDH17, VCAN and CDH11) were transcriptionally more active. The present study allows for better understanding of the physiological processes associated with lipid metabolism and muscle fiber organization. This information could be helpful in further research aiming to estimate the genetic markers.