Topical anaesthetic or vasoconstrictor preparations for flexible fibre-optic nasal pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, September 1996
Sunkaraneni VS, Jones SE
Nasal pharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL) is performed as an outpatient and inpatient procedure on a daily basis, for a variety of indications. It frequently causes some degree of discomfort to the patient. Various different topical agents, which are intended to reduce this discomfort, are in common use. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of the various agents.
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