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Distribution of sialic acid receptors and experimental infections with different subtypes of influenza A viruses in Qinghai-Tibet plateau wild pika

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, April 2015
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3 tweeters
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1 Facebook page

Citations

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2 Dimensions

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12 Mendeley
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Title
Distribution of sialic acid receptors and experimental infections with different subtypes of influenza A viruses in Qinghai-Tibet plateau wild pika
Published in
Virology Journal, April 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12985-015-0290-8
Pubmed ID
Authors

Yan Li, Haixia Xiao, Chaobin Huang, Haigang Sun, Laixing Li, Jingliang Su, Juncai Ma, Di Liu, Han Wang, Wenjun Liu, George F Gao, Xiangdong Li, Jinghua Yan

Abstract

The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a small rabbit-like mammal that lives at high altitudes in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and is in close contact with birds. Following the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 during 2005 in the migratory birds of Qinghai Lake, two clades of H5N1 have been found in pikas. However, the influenza virus receptor distribution in different tissues of this animal and its susceptibility to influenza A viruses have remained unclear. The sialic acid receptor distribution tropism in pika was investigated using fluorescent Sambucus nigra and biotinylated Maackia amurensis I and II. Furthermore, the replication of three influenza A viruses H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 in this animal was examined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Morphological and histopathological changes caused by infection were also analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. Human influenza virus-recognizing SAα2,6Gal receptors are widely expressed in the lung, kidney, liver, spleen, duodenum, ileum, rectum, and heart, whereas avian influenza virus-recognizing SAα2,3Gal receptors are strongly expressed in the trachea and lung of pika. M1 could be detected in the lungs of pikas infected with H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 by either immunostaining or RT-PCR, and in the brain of H5N1-infected pikas. Additionally, three subtypes of influenza A viruses were able to infect pika and caused varying degrees of pneumonia with epithelial desquamation and alveolar inflammatory cell infiltration. Slight pathological changes were observed in H1N1-infected lungs. A few small bronchi and terminal bronchioles were infiltrated by lymphocytic cells in H3N2-infected lungs. In contrast, serious lung damage, such as alveolar capillary hyperemia, edema, alveolar collapse, and lymphocytic infiltrations was observed in H5N1-infected group. Furthermore, neural system changes were present in the brains of H5N1-infected pikas. SAα2,6Gal receptors are extensively present in many of the tissues and organs in wild plateau pika, whereas SA2,3Gal-linked receptors are dominant on the tracheal epithelial cells. H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 were able to infect pika and caused different degrees of pathogenic changes in the lungs. Altogether, these results suggest that wild pika has the potential to be a host for different subtypes of influenza A viruses.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 12 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 12 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Professor 2 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 17%
Student > Master 2 17%
Student > Postgraduate 2 17%
Student > Bachelor 1 8%
Other 3 25%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 33%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 17%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 17%
Earth and Planetary Sciences 1 8%
Unspecified 1 8%
Other 2 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 April 2015.
All research outputs
#4,329,130
of 8,974,298 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
#864
of 1,771 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#96,158
of 207,965 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
#37
of 47 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,974,298 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,771 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.5. This one is in the 46th percentile – i.e., 46% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 207,965 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 47 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 17th percentile – i.e., 17% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.