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Sexually dimorphic facial features vary according to level of autistic-like traits in the general population

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, April 2015
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#21 of 315)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (94th percentile)

Mentioned by

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45 tweeters
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1 Facebook page
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1 Google+ user

Citations

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10 Dimensions

Readers on

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34 Mendeley
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Title
Sexually dimorphic facial features vary according to level of autistic-like traits in the general population
Published in
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, April 2015
DOI 10.1186/s11689-015-9109-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Syed Zulqarnain Gilani, Diana Weiting Tan, Suzanna N Russell-Smith, Murray T Maybery, Ajmal Mian, Peter R Eastwood, Faisal Shafait, Mithran Goonewardene, Andrew JO Whitehouse

Abstract

In a recent study, Bejerot et al. observed that several physical features (including faces) of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were more androgynous than those of their typically developed counterparts, suggesting that ASD may be understood as a 'gender defiant' disorder. These findings are difficult to reconcile with the hypermasculinisation account, which proposes that ASD may be an exaggerated form of cognitive and biological masculinity. The current study extended these data by first identifying six facial features that best distinguished males and females from the general population and then examining these features in typically developing groups selected for high and low levels of autistic-like traits. In study 1, three-dimensional (3D) facial images were collected from 208 young adult males and females recruited from the general population. Twenty-three facial distances were measured from these images and a gender classification and scoring algorithm was employed to identify a set of six facial features that most effectively distinguished male from female faces. In study 2, measurements of these six features were compared for groups of young adults selected for high (n = 46) or low (n = 66) levels of autistic-like traits. For each sex, four of the six sexually dimorphic facial distances significantly differentiated participants with high levels of autistic-like traits from those with low trait levels. All four features were less masculinised for high-trait males compared to low-trait males. Three of four features were less feminised for high-trait females compared to low-trait females. One feature was, however, not consistent with the general pattern of findings and was more feminised among females who reported more autistic-like traits. Based on the four significantly different facial distances for each sex, discriminant function analysis correctly classified 89.7% of the males and 88.9% of the females into their respective high- and low-trait groups. The current data provide support for Bejerot et al.'s androgyny account since males and females with high levels of autistic-like traits generally showed less sex-typical facial features than individuals with low levels of autistic-like traits.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 45 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 34 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 3%
Netherlands 1 3%
Unknown 32 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 15%
Student > Master 5 15%
Student > Bachelor 5 15%
Researcher 4 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 9%
Other 7 21%
Unknown 5 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 13 38%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 9%
Arts and Humanities 1 3%
Computer Science 1 3%
Other 4 12%
Unknown 7 21%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 30. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 December 2019.
All research outputs
#622,420
of 14,329,767 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
#21
of 315 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#12,980
of 229,168 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,329,767 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 95th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 315 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 9.0. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 229,168 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 94% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them