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Cognitive Enhancement

Overview of attention for book
Attention for Chapter 3: Signaling pathways relevant to cognition-enhancing drug targets.
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Chapter title
Signaling pathways relevant to cognition-enhancing drug targets.
Chapter number 3
Book title
Cognitive Enhancement
Published in
Handbook of experimental pharmacology, January 2015
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-16522-6_3
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-916521-9, 978-3-31-916522-6
Authors

Ménard, Caroline, Gaudreau, Pierrette, Quirion, Rémi, Caroline Ménard, Pierrette Gaudreau, Rémi Quirion

Abstract

Aging is generally associated with a certain cognitive decline. However, individual differences exist. While age-related memory deficits can be observed in humans and rodents in the absence of pathological conditions, some individuals maintain intact cognitive functions up to an advanced age. The mechanisms underlying learning and memory processes involve the recruitment of multiple signaling pathways and gene expression, leading to adaptative neuronal plasticity and long-lasting changes in brain circuitry. This chapter summarizes the current understanding of how these signaling cascades could be modulated by cognition-enhancing agents favoring memory formation and successful aging. It focuses on data obtained in rodents, particularly in the rat as it is the most common animal model studied in this field. First, we will discuss the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its receptors, downstream signaling effectors [e.g., calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)], associated immediate early gene (e.g., Homer 1a, Arc and Zif268), and growth factors [insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Second, the impact of the cholinergic system and related modulators on memory will be briefly reviewed. Finally, since dynorphin neuropeptides have recently been associated with memory impairments in aging, it is proposed as an attractive target to develop novel cognition-enhancing agents.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 34 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 34 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 26%
Researcher 7 21%
Student > Master 4 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 6%
Professor 1 3%
Other 6 18%
Unknown 5 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 6 18%
Neuroscience 5 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 12%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 9%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 2 6%
Other 8 24%
Unknown 6 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 May 2015.
All research outputs
#8,474,635
of 9,741,174 outputs
Outputs from Handbook of experimental pharmacology
#313
of 386 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#186,468
of 224,067 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Handbook of experimental pharmacology
#6
of 9 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,741,174 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 386 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.5. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 224,067 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 9 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 3 of them.