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In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice

Overview of attention for article published in Drug Design, Development and Therapy, March 2015
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In vivo antitumor and antimetastatic effects of flavokawain B in 4T1 breast cancer cell-challenged mice
Published in
Drug Design, Development and Therapy, March 2015
DOI 10.2147/dddt.s67976
Pubmed ID

Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Nadiah Abu, Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Swee Keong Yeap, Kian Lam Lim, M Nadeem Akhtar, Boon Kee Beh, Mohd Puad Abdullah, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aimi Jamil Zulfadli


Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 58 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 58 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 19%
Researcher 5 9%
Student > Master 5 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 7%
Professor 3 5%
Other 12 21%
Unknown 18 31%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 14%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 12%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 5 9%
Chemistry 2 3%
Other 5 9%
Unknown 22 38%