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Spinal Cord Stimulation Modulates Supraspinal Centers of the Descending Antinociceptive System in Rats with Unilateral Spinal Nerve Injury

Overview of attention for article published in Molecular Pain, June 2015
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1 tweeter

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29 Dimensions

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37 Mendeley
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Title
Spinal Cord Stimulation Modulates Supraspinal Centers of the Descending Antinociceptive System in Rats with Unilateral Spinal Nerve Injury
Published in
Molecular Pain, June 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12990-015-0039-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

Toshiharu Tazawa, Yoshinori Kamiya, Ayako Kobayashi, Kensuke Saeki, Masahito Takiguchi, Yusuke Nakahashi, Hironobu Shinbori, Kengo Funakoshi, Takahisa Goto

Abstract

The descending antinociceptive system (DAS) is thought to play crucial roles in the antinociceptive effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS), especially through its serotonergic pathway. The nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) in the rostral ventromedial medulla is a major source of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] to the DAS, but the role of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter is still unclear. Moreover, the influence of the noradrenergic pathway is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of these serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways in SCS-induced antinociception by behavioral analysis of spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) rats. We also investigated immunohistochemical changes in the DRN and locus coeruleus (LC), regarded as the adrenergic center of the DAS, and expression changes of synthetic enzymes of 5-HT [tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)] and norepinephrine [dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH)] in the spinal dorsal horn. Intrathecally administered methysergide, a 5-HT1- and 5-HT2-receptor antagonist, and idazoxan, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, equally abolished the antinociceptive effect of SCS. The numbers of TPH-positive serotonergic and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB)-positive neurons and percentage of pCREB-positive serotonergic neurons in the DRN significantly increased after 3-h SCS. Further, the ipsilateral-to-contralateral immunoreactivity ratio of DβH increased in the LC of SNL rats and reached the level seen in naïve rats, even though the number of pCREB-positive neurons in the LC was unchanged by SNL and SCS. Moreover, 3-h SCS did not increase the expression levels of TPH and DβH in the spinal dorsal horn. The serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways of the DAS are involved in the antinociceptive effect of SCS, but activation of the DRN might primarily be responsible for this effect, and the LC may have a smaller contribution. SCS does not potentiate the synthetic enzymes of 5HT and norepinephrine in the neuropathic spinal cord.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 37 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
France 1 3%
Unknown 36 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 24%
Professor > Associate Professor 5 14%
Researcher 5 14%
Student > Bachelor 3 8%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 5%
Other 4 11%
Unknown 9 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 10 27%
Neuroscience 6 16%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 4 11%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 11%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 3%
Other 2 5%
Unknown 10 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 June 2015.
All research outputs
#7,875,901
of 12,552,259 outputs
Outputs from Molecular Pain
#234
of 464 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#123,457
of 233,150 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Molecular Pain
#2
of 6 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,552,259 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 464 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.2. This one is in the 34th percentile – i.e., 34% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 233,150 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 6 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 4 of them.