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Hypoxia induces calpain activity and degrades SMAD2 to attenuate TGFβ signaling in macrophages

Overview of attention for article published in Cell & Bioscience, July 2015
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Mentioned by

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3 tweeters

Citations

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8 Dimensions

Readers on

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25 Mendeley
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Title
Hypoxia induces calpain activity and degrades SMAD2 to attenuate TGFβ signaling in macrophages
Published in
Cell & Bioscience, July 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13578-015-0026-x
Pubmed ID
Authors

Wei Cui, Jie Zhou, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne

Abstract

Under inflammatory conditions or during tumor progression macrophages acquire distinct phenotypes, with factors of the microenvironment such as hypoxia and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) shaping their functional plasticity. TGFβ is among the factors causing alternative macrophage activation, which contributes to tissue regeneration and thus, resolution of inflammation but may also provoke tumor progression. However, the signal crosstalk between TGFβ and hypoxia is ill defined. Exposing human primary macrophages to TGFβ elicited a rapid SMAD2/SMAD3 phosphorylation. This early TGFβ-signaling remained unaffected by hypoxia. However, with prolonged exposure periods to TGFβ/hypoxia the expression of SMAD2 declined because of decreased protein stability. In parallel, hypoxia increased mRNA and protein amount of the calpain regulatory subunit, with the further notion that TGFβ/hypoxia elicited calpain activation. The dual specific proteasome/calpain inhibitor MG132 and the specific calpain inhibitor 1 rescued SMAD2 degradation, substantiating the ability of calpain to degrade SMAD2. Decreased SMAD2 expression reduced TGFβ transcriptional activity of its target genes thrombospondin 1, dystonin, and matrix metalloproteinase 2. Hypoxia interferes with TGFβ signaling in macrophages by calpain-mediated proteolysis of the central signaling component SMAD2.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 25 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 25 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Doctoral Student 5 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 20%
Student > Master 5 20%
Researcher 4 16%
Student > Bachelor 2 8%
Other 2 8%
Unknown 2 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 36%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 32%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 2 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 4%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 3 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 July 2015.
All research outputs
#2,643,145
of 5,325,421 outputs
Outputs from Cell & Bioscience
#58
of 155 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#93,530
of 186,635 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cell & Bioscience
#4
of 8 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 5,325,421 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 47th percentile – i.e., 47% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 155 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.1. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 58% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 186,635 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 8 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 4 of them.