In November 2014 and May 2015, a total of 44 specimens of the South American silver croaker Plagioscion squamosissimus were collected: 30 in Marajó Bay and 14 in the Tapajós River, state of Pará, Brazil. The aim was to investigate the presence of anisakid nematodes and determine their parasitism indices and sites of infection, because of their importance regarding health inspection. Sixty-nine Anisakis sp. larvae were found; among them, 16 larvae in seven fish collected in Marajó Bay and 53 larvae in four fish in the Tapajós River. The parasitism indices of the nematodes collected from the fish in Marajó Bay comprised prevalence (P) of 23%, mean infection intensity (MI) of 2.28, mean abundance (MA) of 0.53, range of infection (RI) of 1-4, and infection site (IS) in the mesentery. The fish from the Tapajós River showed P = 28%, MI = 13.2, MA = 3.8, RI = 1-22, and IS = mesentery and intestine. To assist in taxonomic identification, images of the specimens obtained through optical microscopy with Nomarski's interferential contrast system and scanning electron microscopy were used. This is the first record of Anisakis sp. parasitizing P. squamosissimus.