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Cadmium: From Toxicity to Essentiality

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Attention for Chapter 4: Determination of Cadmium in Biological Samples
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Chapter title
Determination of Cadmium in Biological Samples
Chapter number 4
Book title
Cadmium: From Toxicity to Essentiality
Published in
Metal ions in life sciences, February 2016
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-5179-8_4
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-9-40-075178-1, 978-9-40-075179-8

Katrin Klotz, Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Hans Drexler


Analyses of cadmium concentrations in biological material are performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), but also electrochemical methods, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The predominant sample matrices include blood, plasma, serum, and urine, as well as hair, saliva, and tissue of kidney cortex, lung, and liver. While cadmium in blood reveals rather the recent exposure situation, cadmium in urine reflects the body burden and is an indicator for the cumulative long term exposure.After chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the human body and causes kidney diseases, especially lesions of proximal tubular cells. A tubular proteinuria causes an increase in urinary excretion of microproteins. Excretions of retinol binding protein (RBP), β2-microglobulin (β2-M), and α1-microglobulin are validated biomarkers for analyzing cadmium effects. For this purpose, immunological procedures such as ELISA, and radio- and latex-immunoassays are used.However, proteinuria is not specific to cadmium, but can also occur after exposure to other nephrotoxic agents or due to various kidney diseases. In summary, cadmium in urine and blood are the most specific biomarkers of cadmium exposure. A combination of parameters of exposure (cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine) and parameters of effect (e.g., β2-M, RBP) is required to reveal cadmium-induced nephrological effects.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 29 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Sri Lanka 1 3%
Unknown 28 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 8 28%
Student > Master 6 21%
Researcher 4 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 10%
Student > Postgraduate 2 7%
Other 4 14%
Unknown 2 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Chemistry 8 28%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 21%
Environmental Science 2 7%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 3%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 3%
Other 7 24%
Unknown 4 14%