↓ Skip to main content

Analysis of risk factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in black South Africans: 2000–2012

Overview of attention for article published in PLoS ONE, May 2018
Altmetric Badge


12 Dimensions

Readers on

47 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Analysis of risk factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in black South Africans: 2000–2012
Published in
PLoS ONE, May 2018
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0196057
Pubmed ID

Daniel Mak, Chantal Babb de Villiers, Charles Chasela, Margaret I. Urban, Anna Kramvis


The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of risk factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in black adult South Africans and to estimate the size of the associated risks. A case-control analysis of 150 black South African patients (aged 18-75 years) with HCC-who were a subset of patients recruited for the Johannesburg Cancer Case Control Study 2000 to 2012-was undertaken. The association between this tumour and hepatitis B/C virus infections, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mono- and co-infections was investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, marital status, place of birth and selected modifiable risk factors were calculated. HCC was significantly associated with a rural birthplace (p<0.05), being male and living in an urban area for 14 years or less. The Odds Ratio (OR) for HCC increased significantly with HBV DNA+/HBsAg+ (OR 34.5; CI:16.26-73.13), HBV DNA+/HBsAg- (OR 3.76; CI:1.79-7.92), HBV DNA level >2000 IU/ml (OR 8.55; CI:3.00-24.54) to ≥200,000 (OR 16.93; CI:8.65-33.13), anti-HCV (OR 8.98; CI:3.59-22.46), HBV DNA+/HIV+ co-infection (OR 5.36; CI:2.59-11.11), but not with HBV DNA-/HIV+ (OR 0.34; CI:0.14-0.85). We did not find a synergistic interaction between HBV and HIV. Modifiable risk factors (alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, number of sexual partners, diabetes and hormonal contraceptive use) were nonsignificant. A considerable portion of the HCC burden in Johannesburg and surrounding provinces falls on rural migrants to urban areas, most of whom are men. The HBV will continue to contribute to HCC incidence in older age-groups and in others who missed vaccination. Although we did not find an increased risk for HCC in HIV positive individuals this may change as life expectancy increases due to greater access to antiretroviral therapies, necessitating the addition of hepatitis virus screening to preventive medical care.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 47 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 47 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 9 19%
Researcher 6 13%
Student > Postgraduate 6 13%
Student > Bachelor 4 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 6%
Other 9 19%
Unknown 10 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 14 30%
Nursing and Health Professions 6 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 6%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 4%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 2 4%
Other 4 9%
Unknown 16 34%