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Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour

Overview of attention for article published in PLoS ONE, July 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#2 of 133,551)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
38 news outlets
blogs
15 blogs
twitter
8034 tweeters
facebook
23 Facebook pages
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page
googleplus
48 Google+ users
reddit
24 Redditors
video
4 video uploaders

Citations

dimensions_citation
8 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
156 Mendeley
citeulike
5 CiteULike
Title
Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour
Published in
PLoS ONE, July 2015
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0131613
Pubmed ID
Authors

Michael M. Kasumovic, Jeffrey H. Kuznekoff

Abstract

Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when exploring the factors that affect male hostility towards women.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 8,034 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 156 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 5 3%
Germany 4 3%
United States 3 2%
Finland 1 <1%
France 1 <1%
Ireland 1 <1%
Australia 1 <1%
Canada 1 <1%
Unknown 139 89%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 33 21%
Student > Master 29 19%
Researcher 19 12%
Student > Bachelor 14 9%
Other 11 7%
Other 50 32%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 32 21%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 25 16%
Social Sciences 23 15%
Computer Science 13 8%
Unspecified 12 8%
Other 51 33%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3718. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 November 2018.
All research outputs
#102
of 12,149,178 outputs
Outputs from PLoS ONE
#2
of 133,551 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#4
of 235,050 outputs
Outputs of similar age from PLoS ONE
#1
of 6,399 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,149,178 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 133,551 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 11.6. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 235,050 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 6,399 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.