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Phylogenetic analysis of the emergence of main hepatitis C virus subtypes in São Paulo, Brazil

Overview of attention for article published in Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 2015
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5 tweeters

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42 Mendeley
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Title
Phylogenetic analysis of the emergence of main hepatitis C virus subtypes in São Paulo, Brazil
Published in
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, September 2015
DOI 10.1016/j.bjid.2015.06.010
Pubmed ID
Authors

Anna Shoko Nishiya, César de Almeida-Neto, Camila Malta Romano, Cecília Salete Alencar, Suzete Cleusa Ferreira, Claudia Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, José Eduardo Levi, Nanci Alves Salles, Alfredo Mendrone-Junior, Ester Cerdeira Sabino

Abstract

It is recognized that hepatitis C virus subtypes (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c and 3a) originated in Africa and Asia and spread worldwide exponentially during the Second World War (1940) through the transfusion of contaminated blood products, invasive medical and dental procedures, and intravenous drug use. The entry of hepatitis C virus subtypes into different regions occurred at distinct times, presenting exponential growth rates of larger or smaller spread. Our study estimated the growth and spread of the most prevalent subtypes currently circulating in São Paulo. A total of 465 non-structural region 5B sequences of hepatitis C virus covering a 14-year time-span were used to reconstruct the population history and estimate the population dynamics and Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor of genotypes using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach implemented in BEAST (Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling tree software/program). Evolutionary analysis demonstrated that the different hepatitis C virus subtypes had distinct growth patterns. The introduction of hepatitis C virus-1a and -3a were estimated to be circa 1979 and 1967, respectively, whereas hepatitis C virus-1b appears to have a more ancient entry, circa 1923. Hepatitis C virus-1b phylogenies suggest that different lineages circulate in São Paulo, and four well-supported groups (i.e., G1, G2, G3 and G4) were identified. Hepatitis C virus-1a presented the highest growth rate (r=0.4), but its spread became less marked after the 2000s. Hepatitis C virus-3a grew exponentially until the 1990s and had an intermediate growth rate (r=0.32). An evident exponential growth (r=0.26) was found for hepatitis C virus-1b between 1980 and the mid-1990s. After an initial period of exponential growth, the expansion of the three main subtypes began to decrease. Hepatitis C virus-1b presented inflated genetic diversity, and its transmission may have been sustained by different generations and transmission routes other than blood transfusion. Hepatitis C virus-1a and -3a showed no group stratification, most likely due to their recent entry.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 5 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 42 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 2 5%
Unknown 40 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 7 17%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 12%
Student > Master 5 12%
Professor > Associate Professor 4 10%
Other 8 19%
Unknown 7 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 10 24%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 8 19%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 12%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 5%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 5%
Other 4 10%
Unknown 11 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 February 2017.
All research outputs
#12,410,504
of 20,477,298 outputs
Outputs from Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
#252
of 604 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#120,545
of 251,000 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
#4
of 10 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 20,477,298 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 38th percentile – i.e., 38% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 604 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.6. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 57% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 251,000 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 10 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 6 of them.