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Insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in South-West Cameroon four years after long-lasting insecticidal net mass distribution

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, July 2018
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Title
Insecticide susceptibility status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in South-West Cameroon four years after long-lasting insecticidal net mass distribution
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, July 2018
DOI 10.1186/s13071-018-2979-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Stravensky Térence Boussougou-Sambe, Wolfgang Ekoko Eyisap, Geraud Canis Taboue Tasse, Stanislas Elysee Mandeng, Lili Ranaise Mbakop, Peter Enyong, Josiane Etang, Eric Bertrand Fokam, Parfait H. Awono-Ambene

Abstract

Members of the Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) complex are one of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. LLINs and IRS are the most effective tools used in vector control of malaria. However, their effectiveness may be hampered by the development and spread of insecticide resistance in the target vectors species. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from South-West Cameroon to deltamethrin, permethrin and to malathion, four years after the mass deployment of LLINs. Anopheles larvae were collected from Limbe, Tiko and Buea, three cities of the Fako division and reared until adult emergence. Adult mosquitoes from field larvae were identified as belonging to the Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) complex using standard identification keys. Susceptibility of mosquito samples to deltamethrin, permethrin and malathion was assessed using WHO susceptibility tests protocol for adult mosquitoes. Molecular identification of tested samples was performed using the PCR SINE200 protocol and by PCR-RFLP. The kdr alleles were genotyped using the hot ligation oligonucleotide assay (HOLA). Two species of the An. gambiae (s.l.) complex, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) were identified in all three study locations with high proportions of An. coluzzii in Limbe (84.06%) and Tiko (92.2%), while in Buea, An. coluzzii (55.6%) and An. gambiae (s.s.) (44.4%) occurred almost in the same proportions. Tested samples were found resistant to pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) in all locations (< 90% mortality), with > 3-fold increase of KDT50 values compared with the Kisumu susceptible reference strain of An. gambiae (s.s.). However, the mosquito populations from Limbe and Buea were fully susceptible to malathion. The L1014F kdr was found in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) with the highest frequencies found in An. gambiae (s.l.) populations from Tiko (94%) and Buea (90%) compared with the Limbe population (66%) (P = 0.00063, df = 2). No kdr L1014S was observed in analyzed samples. These findings reemphasize the ongoing development of An. gambiae (s.l.) resistance to pyrethroids used in impregnating LLINs and suggest the use of malathion as an alternative insecticide for IRS in complementarity with LLINs.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 30 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 30 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 20%
Student > Master 4 13%
Researcher 4 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 13%
Student > Postgraduate 3 10%
Other 6 20%
Unknown 3 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 8 27%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 17%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 13%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 7%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 3%
Other 4 13%
Unknown 6 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 July 2018.
All research outputs
#10,075,269
of 13,187,018 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#2,247
of 3,495 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#184,319
of 267,395 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#1
of 1 outputs
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So far Altmetric has tracked 3,495 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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