Electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESESS) which is also known as continuous spike-wave of slow sleep (CSWSS) is type of electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern which is seen in ESESS/CSWSS/epilepsy aphasia spectrum. This EEG pattern can occur alone or with other syndromes. Its etiology is not clear, however, brain malformations, immune disorders, and genetic etiologies are suspected to contribute. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all genetic etiologies which have been reported to associate with ESESS/CSWSS/epilepsy-aphasia spectrum. We further aimed to identify the common underlying pathway which can explain it. To our knowledge, there is no available systematic review of genetic etiologies of ESESS/CSWSS/epilepsy-aphasia spectrum. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane review database were searched, using terms specific to electrical status epilepticus during sleep or continuous spike-wave discharges during slow sleep or epilepsy-aphasia spectrum and of studies of genetic etiologies. These included monogenic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs). For each suspected dosage-sensitive gene, further studies were performed through OMIM and PubMed database.
Twenty-six studies out of the 136 identified studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. I51 cases were identified among those 26 studies. 16 studies reported 11 monogenic mutations: SCN2A (N = 6), NHE6/SLC9A6 (N = 1), DRPLA/ ATN1 (N = 1), Neuroserpin/SRPX2 (N = 1), OPA3 (N = 1), KCNQ2 (N = 2), KCNA2 (N = 5), GRIN2A (N = 34), CNKSR2 (N = 2), SLC6A1 (N = 2) and KCNB1 (N = 5). 10 studies reported 89 CNVs including 9 recurrent ones: Xp22.12 deletion encompassing CNKSR2 (N = 6), 16p13 deletion encompassing GRIN2A (N = 4), 15q11.2-13.1 duplication (N = 15), 3q29 duplication (N = 11), 11p13 duplication (N = 2), 10q21.3 deletion (N = 2), 3q25 deletion (N = 2), 8p23.3 deletion (N = 2) and 9p24.2 (N = 2). 68 of the reported genetic etiologies including monogenic mutations and CNVs were detected in patients with ESESS/CSWSS/epilepsy aphasia spectrum solely. The most common underlying pathway was channelopathy (N = 56).
Our review suggests that genetic etiologies have a role to play in the occurrence of ESESS/CSWSS/epilepsy-aphasia spectrum. The common underlying pathway is channelopathy. Therefore we propose more genetic studies to be done for more discoveries which can pave a way for proper drug identification. We also suggest development of common cut-off value for spike-wave index to ensure common language among clinicians and researchers.