Combined antiretroviral therapy has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carriers to live longer. This increased life expectancy is associated with the occurrence of degenerative diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which are diagnosed via a complex neuropsychological assessment. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) is a screening instrument validated in Brazil for use in the absence of neuropsychological evaluation. HIV patients are frequently diagnosed with depression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment using the IHDS and depressive disorders using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17), compare the IHDS performance with the performances on the Timed Gait Test (TGT), the Digit Symbol Coding Test (DS) and the Brazilian version of the Scale of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and evaluate the association between the IHDS performance and clinical-demographic variables.
One hundred fourteen patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study conducted in a public outpatient clinic for infectious diseases in Marília City, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected following consultation. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the nature and distribution of the data and hypotheses.
According to the IHDS, 53.2% of the sampled patients were neuropsychologically impaired. According to the HAM-D17, 26.3% had depressive disorders. There were significant associations between the IHDS and the TGT and DS. Multiple regression analysis indicated that female gender, educational level, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) levels were significantly and independently associated with neurocognitive impairment.
The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment according to the IHDS is high and associated with female gender, education level, and low CD4 levels.