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Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, September 2015
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (91st percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (63rd percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet
1 policy source
6 tweeters
2 Facebook pages
1 Wikipedia page


66 Dimensions

Readers on

443 Mendeley
1 CiteULike
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Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, September 2015
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd007952.pub3
Pubmed ID

Elizabeth E Lutge, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Stephen E Knight, David Sinclair, Jimmy Volmink


Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmesOnly two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive, given as a daily hot meal, was not well received by the population due to the inconvenience of attending the clinic at midday, whilst in the other trial, nurses distributing the vouchers chose to "ration" their distribution among eligible patients, giving only to those whom they felt were most deprived.Three trials assessed the effects of material incentives and enablers on completion of TB prophylaxis with mixed results (low quality evidence). A large effect was seen with regular cash incentives given to drug users at each clinic visit in a setting with extremely low treatment completion in the control group (treatment completion 52.8% intervention versus 3.6% control; RR 14.53, 95% CI 3.64 to 57.98; one trial, 108 participants), but no effects were seen in one trial assessing a one-off cash incentive for recently released prisoners (373 participants), or another trial assessing material incentives offered by parents to teenagers (388 participants). Single once-only incentivesHowever in specific populations, such as recently released prisoners, drug users, and the homeless, trials show that material incentives probably do improve one-off clinic re-attendance for initiation or continuation of anti-TB prophylaxis (RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.96; three trials, 595 participants; moderate quality evidence), and may increase the return rate for reading of tuberculin skin test results (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.29; two trials, 1371 participants; low quality evidence). Comparison of different types of incentivesSingle trials in specific sub-populations suggest that an immediate cash incentive may be more effective than delaying the incentive until completion of treatment (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.24; one trial, 300 participants; low quality evidence), cash incentives may be more effective than non-cash incentives (completion of TB prophylaxis: RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.56; one trial, 141 participants; low quality evidence; return for skin test reading: RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19; one trial, 652 participants; low quality evidence); and higher cash incentives may be more effective than lower cash incentives (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16; one trial, 404 participants; low quality evidence). Material incentives and enablers may have some positive short term effects on clinic attendance, particularly for marginal populations such as drug users, recently released prisoners, and the homeless, but there is currently insufficient evidence to know if they can improve long term adherence to TB treatment.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 443 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 3 <1%
Sierra Leone 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
South Africa 1 <1%
Romania 1 <1%
Spain 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Unknown 434 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 93 21%
Researcher 72 16%
Student > Bachelor 46 10%
Student > Ph. D. Student 46 10%
Student > Postgraduate 26 6%
Other 81 18%
Unknown 79 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 124 28%
Nursing and Health Professions 72 16%
Social Sciences 41 9%
Psychology 24 5%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 2%
Other 62 14%
Unknown 109 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 18. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 January 2020.
All research outputs
of 17,362,547 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 11,660 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 245,282 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 258 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 17,362,547 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 92nd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 11,660 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 25.0. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 72% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 245,282 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 258 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 63% of its contemporaries.