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Frequency of RANTES gene polymorphisms and their association with incidence of malaria: a longitudinal study on children in Iganga district, Uganda

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, September 2015
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (52nd percentile)

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4 tweeters

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31 Mendeley
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Frequency of RANTES gene polymorphisms and their association with incidence of malaria: a longitudinal study on children in Iganga district, Uganda
Published in
Malaria Journal, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0875-0
Pubmed ID

Catherine N. Lwanira, Mark Kaddu Mukasa, Göte Swedberg, Fred Kironde


The severity and outcome of malaria is influenced by host immunity in which chemokines such as Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) play an important role. Previous studies show that variations in the RANTES gene affect RANTES protein production, hence altering host immunity. In this study, the relationship between presence of mutations in RANTES and incidence of malaria in a cohort of children living in a malaria-endemic area of Uganda was determined. This was a longitudinal study comprising of 423 children aged between 6 months and 9 years, who were actively followed up for 1 year. Malaria episodes occurring in the cohort children were detected and the affected children treated with national policy drug regimen. Mutations in the RANTES gene were determined by PCR-RFLP method and their frequencies were calculated. A multivariate negative binomial regression model was used to estimate the impact of RANTES mutations on malaria incidence. In all statistical tests, a P-value of <0.05 was considered as significant. The frequencies of the -403A and In1.1C allele were 53.7 and 19.2 %, respectively. No mutations were found at the -28 locus. After adjustment of incidence rates for age, blood group, insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use, malaria history and the sickle cell trait, 1n1.1T/C heterozygotes and homozygotes showed a non-significant trend towards higher incidence rates compared to wild-type individuals (IRR = 1.10; P = 0.55 and IRR = 1.25; P = 0.60, respectively). Similarly, there was no significant difference in malaria incidence rates between RANTES -403G/A heterozygotes or homozygotes and those without mutations (IRR = 1.09; P = 0.66 and IRR = 1.16; P = 0.50, respectively). No relation was seen between RANTES polymorphisms, baseline parasite densities and the time to first re-infection after administration of anti-malaria drugs. This study showed that the -403A mutation occurs in nearly half of the study population and the In1.1C allele occurs in one in every four children. Despite the high frequency of these mutations, there was no clear association with malaria incidence. Other studies evaluating more markers, that could potentially modulate RANTES gene transcription alongside other genetic modifiers of malaria susceptibility, may provide further explanations to these less dramatic findings.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 31 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 3%
Mexico 1 3%
Unknown 29 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 6 19%
Researcher 6 19%
Other 5 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 16%
Student > Bachelor 4 13%
Other 2 6%
Unknown 3 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 8 26%
Social Sciences 3 10%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 10%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 6%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 6%
Other 8 26%
Unknown 5 16%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 10 September 2015.
All research outputs
of 11,565,275 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
of 3,408 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 236,994 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
of 129 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,565,275 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 40th percentile – i.e., 40% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,408 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.2. This one is in the 31st percentile – i.e., 31% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 236,994 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 52% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 129 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 29th percentile – i.e., 29% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.