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Genetic polymorphisms in the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium malariae show a geographical bias

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, July 2018
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (51st percentile)

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5 tweeters

Citations

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6 Dimensions

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21 Mendeley
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Title
Genetic polymorphisms in the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium malariae show a geographical bias
Published in
Malaria Journal, July 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12936-018-2413-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Naowarat Saralamba, Mayfong Mayxay, Paul N. Newton, Frank Smithuis, Francois Nosten, Laypaw Archasuksan, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Nicholas J. White, Nicholas P. J. Day, Arjen M. Dondorp, Mallika Imwong

Abstract

Plasmodium malariae is characterized by its long asymptomatic persistence in the human host. The epidemiology of P. malariae is incompletely understood and is hampered by the limited knowledge of genetic polymorphisms. Previous reports from Africa have shown heterogeneity within the P. malariae circumsporozoite protein (pmcsp) gene. However, comparative studies from Asian countries are lacking. Here, the genetic polymorphisms in pmcsp of Asian isolates have been characterized. Blood samples from 89 symptomatic P. malariae-infected patients were collected, from Thailand (n = 43), Myanmar (n = 40), Lao PDR (n = 5), and Bangladesh (n = 1). pmcsp was amplified using semi-nested PCR before sequencing. The resulting 89 pmcsp sequences were analysed together with 58 previously published pmcsp sequences representing African countries using BioEdit, MEGA6, and DnaSP. Polymorphisms identified in pmcsp were grouped into 3 populations: Thailand, Myanmar, and Kenya. The nucleotide diversity and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) in Thailand and Myanmar were higher compared with that in Kenya. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of pmcsp sequences according to the origin of isolates (Asia vs. Africa). High genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.404) was observed between P. malariae isolates from Asian and African countries. Sequence analysis of pmcsp showed the presence of tetrapeptide repeat units of NAAG, NDAG, and NAPG in the central repeat region of the gene. Plasmodium malariae isolates from Asian countries carried fewer copies of NAAG compared with that from African countries. The NAPG repeat was only observed in Asian isolates. Additional analysis of 2 T-cell epitopes, Th2R and Th3R, showed limited heterogeneity in P. malariae populations. This study provides valuable information on the genetic polymorphisms in pmcsp isolates from Asia and advances our understanding of P. malariae population in Asia and Africa. Polymorphisms in the central repeat region of pmcsp showed association with the geographical origin of P. malariae isolates and can be potentially used as a marker for genetic epidemiology of P. malariae population.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 5 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 21 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 21 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Other 4 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 19%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 14%
Student > Master 2 10%
Student > Bachelor 1 5%
Other 4 19%
Unknown 3 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 29%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 24%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 10%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 10%
Chemistry 2 10%
Other 1 5%
Unknown 3 14%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 03 January 2019.
All research outputs
#8,627,275
of 15,661,817 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#2,738
of 4,439 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#104,378
of 224,057 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,661,817 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,439 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.0. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 224,057 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 51% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them