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An update on Toxoplasma gondii infections in northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, USA

Overview of attention for article published in Veterinary Parasitology, July 2018
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Title
An update on Toxoplasma gondii infections in northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, USA
Published in
Veterinary Parasitology, July 2018
DOI 10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.05.011
Pubmed ID
Authors

Shiv K. Verma, Susan Knowles, Camila K. Cerqueira-Cézar, Oliver C. Kwok, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su, Jitender P. Dubey

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis in marine mammals is epidemiologically and clinically important. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (by modified agglutination test, cut-off ≥1:25) were detected in serum of 65 of 70 (92.9%) northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, USA. Brains and/or muscles of 44 sea otters were bioassayed in mice (INF-γ knock-out [KO], Swiss Webster outbred [SW]) and viable T. gondii was isolated from 22 of 44 (50%); T. gondii strains were lethal to KO mice but not SW mice. These T. gondii isolates were further propagated in cell culture. Multi-locus PCR-RFLP genotyping of cell culture-derived tachyzoites revealed four different genotypes among 22 isolates including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #5 (14 isolates), #1 (three isolates), #3 (four isolates), and #167 (one isolate). PCR-DNA sequencing based genotyping using polymorphic gene GRA6 revealed one of four different alleles. Among the 14 RFLP genotype #5 strains, 10 have GRA6 sequences that match with the Type A, one match with the Type X, two strains did not generate sequence data, and one strain had double peaks at known polymorphic sites indicating a mixed infection. The seven strains belong to genotypes #1 and #3, all have identical sequences to T. gondii Type II reference isolate ME49. Genotype #167 strain has identical sequence to Type I reference strain. In summary, we observed high seroprevalence, and high rate of isolation of T. gondii from northern sea otters and predominant genotype #5 that has been previously reported a dominant and widespread strain among terrestrial wildlife in North America. GRA6 sequence analysis of the genotype #5 isolates indicated the dominance of Type A lineage in sea otters in Washington State.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 15 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 15 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 20%
Student > Master 3 20%
Researcher 3 20%
Unspecified 2 13%
Student > Postgraduate 1 7%
Other 3 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 33%
Unspecified 3 20%
Environmental Science 3 20%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 13%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 13%
Other 0 0%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 November 2018.
All research outputs
#10,345,987
of 12,968,588 outputs
Outputs from Veterinary Parasitology
#1,593
of 2,506 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#200,004
of 267,031 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Veterinary Parasitology
#27
of 41 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,968,588 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,506 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.2. This one is in the 24th percentile – i.e., 24% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 267,031 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 41 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.