Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Selective pressure, the extensive use of antibiotics, and the conjugational transmission of antibiotic resistance genes across bacterial species and genera facilitate the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae. Here, we examined the occurrence, phenotypes and genetic features of MDR K. pneumoniae isolated from patients in intensive care units (ICUs) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University in Xiamen, China, from January to December 2011. Thirty-eight MDR K. pneumoniae strains were collected. These MDR K. pneumoniae isolates possessed at least seven antibiotic resistance determinants, which contribute to the high-level resistance of these bacteria to aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones and β-lactams. Among these isolates, 24 strains were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 2 strains were AmpC producers, and 12 strains were both ESBL and AmpC producers. The 38 MDR isolates also contained class I (28/38) and class II integrons (10/38). All 28 class I-positive isolates contained aacC1, aacC4, orfX, orfX' and aadA1 genes. β-lactam resistance was conferred through bla SHV (22/38), bla TEM (10/38), and bla CTX-M (7/38). The highly conserved bla KPC-2 (37/38) and bla OXA-23(1/38) alleles were responsible for carbapenem resistance, and a gyrAsite mutation (27/38) and the plasmid-mediated qnrB gene (13/38) were responsible for quinolone resistance. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) fingerprinting of these MDR strains revealed the presence of five groups and sixteen patterns. The MDR strains from unrelated groups showed different drug resistance patterns; however, some homologous strains also showed different drug resistance profiles. Therefore, REP-PCR-based analyses can provide information to evaluate the epidemic status of nosocomial infection caused by MDR K. pneumoniae; however, this test lacks the power to discriminate some isolates. Thus, we propose that both genotyping and REP-PCR typing should be used to distinguish genetic groups beyond the species level.