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Cytolytic and systemic toxic effects induced by the aqueous extract of the fire coral Millepora alcicornis collected in the Mexican Caribbean and detection of two types of cytolisins

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, September 2015
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Title
Cytolytic and systemic toxic effects induced by the aqueous extract of the fire coral Millepora alcicornis collected in the Mexican Caribbean and detection of two types of cytolisins
Published in
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s40409-015-0035-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Rosalina Hernández-Matehuala, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, Alma Angelica Vuelvas-Solórzano, Alejandro Garcia-Arredondo, Cesar Ibarra Alvarado, Norma Olguín-López, Manuel Aguilar

Abstract

Millepora alcicornis is a branching hydrocoral common throughout the Caribbean Sea. Like other members of this genus, this species is capable of inducing skin eruptions and blisters with severe pain after contact. In the present study, we investigated the toxicity of the M. alcicornis aqueous extract on several animal models. Considering that some cnidarian hemolysins have been associated to local tissue damage, since they also induce lysis of other cell types, we also made a partial characterization of the hemolytic activity of M. alcicornis aqueous extract. This information is important for understanding the defense mechanisms of the "fire corals". The effects of pH, temperature, and some divalent cations on the hemolytic activity of the extract were assayed, followed by a zymogram analysis to detect the cytolysins and determine their approximate molecular weight. The toxicity of the aqueous extract was assayed in mice, by intravenous administration, and histopathological changes on several tissues were analyzed by light microscopy. The toxicity of the extract was also tested in Artemia salina nauplii, and the damages caused on the crustaceans were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The hemolytic activity of the hydrocoral extract was enhanced in the presence of Ca(2+) (≥2 mM), Mg(2+) (≥6 mM), and Ba(2+) (≥0.1 mM); however, it was reduced in the presence of Cu(2+) (≥0.1 mM), Zn(2+) (≥6 mM), and EDTA (≥0.34 mM). Differences in the pH did not affect the hemolytic activity, but it was temperature-sensitive, since preincubation at ≥ 50 °C sharply reduced hemolysis. The zymogram showed the presence of two types of hemolysins: ~ 28-30 kDa proteins with phospholipase A2 activity and ~ 200 kDa proteins that do not elicit enzymatic activity. The aqueous extract of this cnidarian was lethal to mice (LD50 = 17 μg protein/g), and induced kidney, liver, and lung damages. Under denaturing conditions, the aqueous extract completely lost its toxic and hemolytic activities. The results showed that the M. alcicornis aqueous extract contains two types of thermolabile hemolysins: proteins of approximately 28-30 kDa with PLA2 activity, while the others are larger proteins of approximately 200 kDa, which do not possess PLA2 activity. Those thermolabile cytolysins, which are stable to pH changes and whose activity is calcium dependent, are capable of inducing damage in lung, kidney and liver tissues, resulting in a slow death of mice. M. alcicornis cytolysins also provoke tissue dissociation in Artemia salina nauplii that might be attributed to pore forming mechanisms.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 29 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 1 3%
Unknown 28 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 7 24%
Student > Bachelor 5 17%
Student > Postgraduate 3 10%
Professor 3 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 7%
Other 4 14%
Unknown 5 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 24%
Chemistry 4 14%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 14%
Environmental Science 2 7%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 3%
Other 3 10%
Unknown 8 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 29 September 2015.
All research outputs
#3,025,885
of 6,417,267 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
#111
of 225 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#108,305
of 201,259 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
#6
of 11 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 6,417,267 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 29th percentile – i.e., 29% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 225 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.0. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 201,259 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 36th percentile – i.e., 36% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 11 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 9th percentile – i.e., 9% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.