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Drosophila innate immunity: regional and functional specialization of prophenoloxidases

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Biology, October 2015
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (82nd percentile)

Mentioned by

10 tweeters
1 Wikipedia page


76 Dimensions

Readers on

117 Mendeley
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Drosophila innate immunity: regional and functional specialization of prophenoloxidases
Published in
BMC Biology, October 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12915-015-0193-6
Pubmed ID

Jan P. Dudzic, Shu Kondo, Ryu Ueda, Casey M. Bergman, Bruno Lemaitre


The diversification of immune systems during evolution involves the expansion of particular gene families in given phyla. A better understanding of the metazoan immune system requires an analysis of the logic underlying such immune gene amplification. This analysis is now within reach due to the ease with which we can generate multiple mutations in an organism. In this paper, we analyze the contribution of the three Drosophila prophenoloxidases (PPOs) to host defense by generating single, double and triple mutants. PPOs are enzymes that catalyze the production of melanin at the site of infection and around parasites. They are the rate-limiting enzymes that contribute to the melanization reaction, a major immune mechanism of arthropods. The number of PPO-encoding genes is variable among insects, ranging from one in the bee to ten in the mosquito. By analyzing mutations alone and in combination, we ascribe a specific function to each of the three PPOs of Drosophila. Our study confirms that two PPOs produced by crystal cells, PPO1 and PPO2, contribute to the bulk of melanization in the hemolymph, upon septic or clean injury. In contrast, PPO3, a PPO restricted to the D. melanogaster group, is expressed in lamellocytes and contributes to melanization during the encapsulation process. Interestingly, another overlapping set of PPOs, PPO2 and PPO3, achieve melanization of the capsule upon parasitoid wasp infection. The use of single or combined mutations allowed us to show that each PPO mutant has a specific phenotype, and that knocking out two of three genes is required to abolish fully a particular function. Thus, Drosophila PPOs have partially overlapping functions to optimize melanization in at least two conditions: following injury or during encapsulation. Since PPO3 is restricted to the D. melanogaster group, this suggests that production of PPO by lamellocytes emerged as a recent defense mechanism against parasitoid wasps. We conclude that differences in spatial localization, immediate or late availability, and mode of activation underlie the functional diversification of the three Drosophila PPOs, with each of them having non-redundant but overlapping functions.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 117 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 <1%
France 1 <1%
Unknown 115 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 31 26%
Researcher 18 15%
Student > Master 15 13%
Student > Bachelor 13 11%
Professor 8 7%
Other 21 18%
Unknown 11 9%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 56 48%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 28 24%
Immunology and Microbiology 9 8%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 3%
Chemistry 2 2%
Other 7 6%
Unknown 12 10%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 9. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 May 2019.
All research outputs
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Outputs from BMC Biology
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from BMC Biology
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Altmetric has tracked 15,115,606 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 84th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,287 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 19.0. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 51% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 253,080 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 82% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them