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Weathering of Oil in a Surficial Aquifer

Overview of attention for article published in Ground Water, November 2017
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Weathering of Oil in a Surficial Aquifer
Published in
Ground Water, November 2017
DOI 10.1111/gwat.12619
Pubmed ID

Mary Jo Baedecker, Robert P. Eganhouse, Haiping Qi, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli, Jared J. Trost, Barbara A. Bekins


The composition of crude oil in a surficial aquifer was determined in two locations at the Bemidji, MN, spill site. The abundances of 71 individual hydrocarbons varied within 16 locations sampled. Little depletion of these hydrocarbons (relative to the pipeline oil) occurred in the first 10 years after the spill, whereas losses of 25% to 85% of the total measured hydrocarbons occurred after 30 years. The C6-30 n-alkanes, toluene, and o-xylene were the most depleted hydrocarbons. Some hydrocarbons, such as the n-C10-24 cyclohexanes, tri- and tetra- methylbenzenes, acyclic isoprenoids, and naphthalenes were the least depleted. Benzene was detected at every sampling location 30 years after the spill. Degradation of the oil led to increases in the percent organic carbon and in the δ 13 C of the oil. Another method of determining hydrocarbon loss was by normalizing the total measured hydrocarbon concentrations to that of the most conservative analytes. This method indicated that the total measured hydrocarbons were depleted by 47% to 77% and loss of the oil mass over 30 years was 18% to 31%. Differences in hydrocarbon depletion were related to the depth of the oil in the aquifer, local topography, amount of recharge reaching the oil, availability of electron acceptors, and the presence of less permeable soils above the oil. The results from this study indicate that once crude oil has been in the subsurface for a number of years there is no longer a "starting oil concentration" that can be used to understand processes that affect its fate and the transport of hydrocarbons in groundwater.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 9 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 9 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Professor 4 44%
Researcher 4 44%
Student > Master 1 11%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Earth and Planetary Sciences 4 44%
Unspecified 3 33%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 11%
Environmental Science 1 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 20 February 2019.
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Altmetric has tracked 13,390,335 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 574 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 4th percentile – i.e., 4% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 9 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 2 of them.