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Insights into the recent emergence and expansion of eastern equine encephalitis virus in a new focus in the Northern New England USA

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, October 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (88th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
twitter
4 tweeters

Citations

dimensions_citation
16 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
41 Mendeley
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Title
Insights into the recent emergence and expansion of eastern equine encephalitis virus in a new focus in the Northern New England USA
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, October 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13071-015-1145-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Goudarz Molaei, Philip M. Armstrong, Alan C. Graham, Laura D. Kramer, Theodore G. Andreadis

Abstract

Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds in freshwater hardwood swamps in the northeastern U.S. Epidemic/epizootic transmission to humans/equines typically occurs towards the end of the transmission season and is generally assumed to be mediated by locally abundant and contiguous mammalophagic "bridge vector" mosquitoes. Engorged mosquitoes were collected using CDC light, resting box, and gravid traps during epidemic transmission of EEEV in 2012 in Addison and Rutland counties, Vermont. Mosquitoes were identified to species and blood meal analysis performed by sequencing mitochondrial cytochrome b gene polymerase chain reaction products. Infection status with EEEV in mosquitoes was determined using cell culture and RT-PCR assays, and all viral isolates were sequenced and compared to other EEEV strains by phylogenetic analysis. The host choices of 574 engorged mosquitoes were as follows: Cs. melanura (n = 331, 94.3 % avian-derived, 5.7 % mammalian-derived); Anopheles quadrimaculatus (n = 164, 3.0 % avian, 97.0 % mammalian); An. punctipennis (n = 56, 7.2 % avian, 92.8 % mammalian), Aedes vexans (n = 9, 22.2 % avian, 77.8 % mammalian); Culex pipiens s.l. n = 6, 100 % avian); Coquillettidia perturbans (n = 4, 25.0 % avian, 75.0 % mammalian); and Cs. morsitans (n = 4, 100 % avian). A seasonal shift in blood feeding by Cs. melanura from Green Heron towards other avian species was observed. EEEV was successfully isolated from blood-fed Cs. melanura and analyzed by phylogenetic analysis. Vermont strains from 2012 clustered with viral strains previously isolated in Virginia yet were genetically distinct from an earlier EEEV isolate from Vermont during 2011. Culiseta melanura acquired blood meals primarily from birds and focused feeding activity on several competent species capable of supporting EEEV transmission. Culiseta melanura also occasionally obtained blood meals from mammalian hosts including humans. This mosquito species serves as the primary vector of EEEV among wild bird species, but also is capable of occasionally contributing to epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans/equines. Other mosquito species including Cq. perturbans that feed more opportunistically on both avian and mammalian hosts may be important in epidemic/epizootic transmission under certain conditions. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that EEEV was independently introduced into Vermont on at least two separate occasions.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 41 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 2%
Unknown 40 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 22%
Researcher 9 22%
Student > Master 6 15%
Other 4 10%
Student > Bachelor 3 7%
Other 6 15%
Unknown 4 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 14 34%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 7 17%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 7%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 7%
Environmental Science 2 5%
Other 6 15%
Unknown 6 15%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 14. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 27 October 2015.
All research outputs
#428,453
of 6,496,325 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#73
of 1,834 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#23,152
of 206,537 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#3
of 158 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 6,496,325 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,834 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.5. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 206,537 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 158 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.