The bone marrow (BM) is a main organ at risk in Lu-177-PSMA-617 therapy of prostate cancer and Lu-177-Octreotate therapy of neuroendocrine tumours. BM dosimetry is challenging and time-consuming, as different sequential quantitative measurements must be combined. The BM absorbed dose from the remainder of the body (ROB) can be determined from sequential whole-body planar (WB-P) imaging, while quantitative Lu-177-SPECT allows for more robust tumour and organ absorbed doses. The aim was to investigate a time-efficient and patient-friendly hybrid protocol (HP) for the ROB absorbed dose to the BM. It combines three abdominal quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) scans with a single WB-P acquisition and was compared with a reference protocol (RP) using sequential WB-P in combination with sequential QSPECT images. We investigated five patients receiving 7.4 GBq Lu-177-Octreotate and five patients treated with 3.7 GBq Lu-177-PSMA-617. Each patient had WB-P and abdominal SPECT acquisitions 24 (+ CT), 48, and 72 h post-injection. Blood samples were drawn 30 min, 80 min, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-injection. BM absorbed doses from the ROB were estimated from sequential WB-P images (RP), via a mono-exponential fit and mass-scaled organ-level S values. For the HP, a mono-exponential fit on the QSPECT data was scaled with the activity of one WB-P image acquired either 24, 48, or 72 h post-injection (HP24, HP48, HP72). Total BM absorbed doses were determined as a sum of ROB, blood, major organ, and tumour contributions.
Compared with the RP and for Lu-177-Octreotate therapy, median differences of the total BM absorbed doses were 13% (9-17%), 8% (4-15%), and 1% (0-5%) for the HP24, HP48, and HP72, respectively. For Lu-177-PSMA-617 therapy, total BM absorbed doses deviated 10% (2-20%), 3% (0-6%), and 2% (0-6%).
For both Lu-177-Octreotate and Lu-177-PSMA-617 therapy, BM dosimetry via sequential QSPECT imaging and a single WB-P acquisition is feasible, if this WB-P image is acquired at a late time point (48 or 72 h post-injection). The reliability of the HP can be well accepted considering the uncertainties of quantitative Lu-177 imaging and BM dosimetry using standardised organ-level S values.