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Factors associated with depression among adolescents living with HIV in Malawi

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Psychiatry, October 2015
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3 tweeters
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1 Facebook page

Citations

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36 Dimensions

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192 Mendeley
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Title
Factors associated with depression among adolescents living with HIV in Malawi
Published in
BMC Psychiatry, October 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12888-015-0649-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

Maria H. Kim, Alick C. Mazenga, Xiaoying Yu, Akash Devandra, Chi Nguyen, Saeed Ahmed, Peter N. Kazembe, Carla Sharp

Abstract

Prior research suggests that a high prevalence of depression, with a detrimental impact on treatment outcomes exists among HIV-infected youth. Data on potential risk factors of depression among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify contributory/protective factors associated with depression in Malawian adolescents 12-18 years old living with HIV. Depression was measured by a validated Chichewa version of the Beck Depression Inventory version-II (BDI-II) and the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). Data on variables thought to potentially be contributory/protective were collected and included: socio-demographics, past traumatic events/stressors, behavioural factors/social support, and bio-clinical parameters. Chi-square test or two-sample t-test was used to explore associations between factors and depression. Additional testing via linear/logistic regression, adjusting for age and sex, identified candidate variables (p < 0.1). Final regression models included variables with significant main effects and interactions. Of the 562 participants enrolled (mean age, 14.5 years [SD 2.0]; 56.1 % female), the prevalence of depression was 18.9 %. In multivariate linear regression, the variables significantly associated with higher BDI-II score were female gender, fewer years of schooling, death in the family/household, failing a school term/class, having a boyfriend/girlfriend, not disclosed or not having shared one's HIV status with someone else, more severe immunosuppression, and bullied for taking medications. Bullying victimization was reported by 11.6 % of respondents. We found significant interactions: older participants with lower height-for-age z-scores and dissatisfied with their physical appearance had higher BDI-II scores. In multivariate logistic regression, factors significantly associated with depression were: older age, OR 1.23 (95 % CI 1.07-1.42); fewer years of schooling, OR 3.30 (95 % CI 1.54-7.05); and bullied for taking medications, (OR 4.20 (95 % CI 2.29-7.69). Having fewer years of schooling and being bullied for taking medications were most clearly associated with depression. Programmes to support the mental health needs of HIV-infected adolescents that address issues such as disclosure, educational support, and, most notably, bullying may improve treatment outcomes and are recommended.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 192 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Tanzania, United Republic of 2 1%
Cameroon 1 <1%
Unknown 189 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 47 24%
Researcher 27 14%
Student > Postgraduate 23 12%
Student > Bachelor 19 10%
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 8%
Other 37 19%
Unknown 24 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 63 33%
Nursing and Health Professions 31 16%
Psychology 25 13%
Social Sciences 23 12%
Unspecified 5 3%
Other 14 7%
Unknown 31 16%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 May 2016.
All research outputs
#7,115,727
of 11,426,369 outputs
Outputs from BMC Psychiatry
#1,867
of 2,648 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#132,371
of 250,942 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Psychiatry
#68
of 87 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,426,369 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,648 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 8.2. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 250,942 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 87 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.