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Factors associated with depression among adolescents living with HIV in Malawi

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Psychiatry, October 2015
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2 tweeters
1 Facebook page


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225 Mendeley
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Factors associated with depression among adolescents living with HIV in Malawi
Published in
BMC Psychiatry, October 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12888-015-0649-9
Pubmed ID

Maria H. Kim, Alick C. Mazenga, Xiaoying Yu, Akash Devandra, Chi Nguyen, Saeed Ahmed, Peter N. Kazembe, Carla Sharp


Prior research suggests that a high prevalence of depression, with a detrimental impact on treatment outcomes exists among HIV-infected youth. Data on potential risk factors of depression among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify contributory/protective factors associated with depression in Malawian adolescents 12-18 years old living with HIV. Depression was measured by a validated Chichewa version of the Beck Depression Inventory version-II (BDI-II) and the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). Data on variables thought to potentially be contributory/protective were collected and included: socio-demographics, past traumatic events/stressors, behavioural factors/social support, and bio-clinical parameters. Chi-square test or two-sample t-test was used to explore associations between factors and depression. Additional testing via linear/logistic regression, adjusting for age and sex, identified candidate variables (p < 0.1). Final regression models included variables with significant main effects and interactions. Of the 562 participants enrolled (mean age, 14.5 years [SD 2.0]; 56.1 % female), the prevalence of depression was 18.9 %. In multivariate linear regression, the variables significantly associated with higher BDI-II score were female gender, fewer years of schooling, death in the family/household, failing a school term/class, having a boyfriend/girlfriend, not disclosed or not having shared one's HIV status with someone else, more severe immunosuppression, and bullied for taking medications. Bullying victimization was reported by 11.6 % of respondents. We found significant interactions: older participants with lower height-for-age z-scores and dissatisfied with their physical appearance had higher BDI-II scores. In multivariate logistic regression, factors significantly associated with depression were: older age, OR 1.23 (95 % CI 1.07-1.42); fewer years of schooling, OR 3.30 (95 % CI 1.54-7.05); and bullied for taking medications, (OR 4.20 (95 % CI 2.29-7.69). Having fewer years of schooling and being bullied for taking medications were most clearly associated with depression. Programmes to support the mental health needs of HIV-infected adolescents that address issues such as disclosure, educational support, and, most notably, bullying may improve treatment outcomes and are recommended.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 225 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Tanzania, United Republic of 2 <1%
Cameroon 1 <1%
Unknown 222 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 47 21%
Researcher 31 14%
Student > Postgraduate 25 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 25 11%
Student > Bachelor 22 10%
Other 42 19%
Unknown 33 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 68 30%
Nursing and Health Professions 34 15%
Psychology 31 14%
Social Sciences 25 11%
Neuroscience 6 3%
Other 15 7%
Unknown 46 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 May 2016.
All research outputs
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Outputs from BMC Psychiatry
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from BMC Psychiatry
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So far Altmetric has tracked 3,293 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 10.4. This one is in the 18th percentile – i.e., 18% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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