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Stromal Immunology

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Attention for Chapter 4: Molecular and Cellular Requirements for the Assembly of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures
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Chapter title
Molecular and Cellular Requirements for the Assembly of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures
Chapter number 4
Book title
Stromal Immunology
Published in
Advances in experimental medicine and biology, August 2018
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-78127-3_4
Pubmed ID
Book ISBNs
978-3-31-978125-9, 978-3-31-978127-3

C. G. Mueller, S. Nayar, J. Campos, F. Barone


At sites of chronic inflammation, recruited immune cells form structures that resemble secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Those are characterized by segregated areas of prevalent T- or B-cell aggregation, differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs) and local activation of resident stromal cells. B-cell proliferation and affinity maturation towards locally displayed autoantigens have been demonstrated at those sites, known as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). TLS formation has been associated with local disease persistence and progression as well as increased systemic manifestations. While bearing a similar histological structure to SLO, the signals that regulate TLS and SLO formation can diverge, and a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been ascribed as responsible for TLS formation at different anatomical sites. Here we review the structural elements as well as the signals responsible for TLS aggregation, aiming to provide an overview to this complex immunological phenomenon.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 11 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 11 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 3 27%
Researcher 2 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 18%
Professor 1 9%
Student > Bachelor 1 9%
Other 1 9%
Unknown 1 9%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 27%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 18%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 2 18%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 9%
Other 1 9%
Unknown 1 9%