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Cluster failure: Why fMRI inferences for spatial extent have inflated false-positive rates

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, June 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#19 of 46,089)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Readers on

mendeley
1861 Mendeley
citeulike
17 CiteULike
Title
Cluster failure: Why fMRI inferences for spatial extent have inflated false-positive rates
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, June 2016
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1602413113
Pubmed ID
Authors

Anders Eklund, Thomas Nichols, Hans Knutsson, Thomas E. Nichols, Eklund, Anders, Nichols, Thomas E, Knutsson, Hans

Abstract

The most widely used task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses use parametric statistical methods that depend on a variety of assumptions. In this work, we use real resting-state data and a total of 3 million random task group analyses to compute empirical familywise error rates for the fMRI software packages SPM, FSL, and AFNI, as well as a nonparametric permutation method. For a nominal familywise error rate of 5%, the parametric statistical methods are shown to be conservative for voxelwise inference and invalid for clusterwise inference. Our results suggest that the principal cause of the invalid cluster inferences is spatial autocorrelation functions that do not follow the assumed Gaussian shape. By comparison, the nonparametric permutation test is found to produce nominal results for voxelwise as well as clusterwise inference. These findings speak to the need of validating the statistical methods being used in the field of neuroimaging.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 1,532 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 1,861 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 62 3%
Germany 39 2%
United Kingdom 32 2%
Canada 14 <1%
Switzerland 13 <1%
Netherlands 13 <1%
Japan 12 <1%
Spain 10 <1%
France 10 <1%
Other 74 4%
Unknown 1582 85%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 545 29%
Researcher 362 19%
Student > Master 224 12%
Student > Bachelor 111 6%
Student > Doctoral Student 104 6%
Other 356 19%
Unknown 159 9%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 549 30%
Neuroscience 282 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 198 11%
Medicine and Dentistry 195 10%
Unspecified 143 8%
Other 335 18%
Unknown 159 9%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1874. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 16 July 2017.
All research outputs
#350
of 8,135,716 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#19
of 46,089 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#14
of 244,961 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#3
of 908 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,135,716 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 46,089 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 23.8. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 244,961 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 908 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.