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Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, November 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (90th percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (62nd percentile)

Mentioned by

blogs
1 blog
twitter
6 tweeters
facebook
1 Facebook page
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page

Citations

dimensions_citation
18 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
118 Mendeley
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Title
Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, November 2015
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd004402.pub3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Emtithal Rezk, Yazan H Nofal, Ammar Hamzeh, Muhammed F Aboujaib, Mohammad A AlKheder, Muhammad F Al Hammad

Abstract

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever or the kissing disease, is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder. It is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpes virus that is found in all human societies and cultures. Epidemiological studies show that over 95% of adults worldwide have been infected with EBV. Most cases of symptomatic infectious mononucleosis occur between the ages of 15 and 24 years. It is transmitted through close contact with an EBV shedder, contact with infected saliva or, less commonly, through sexual contact, blood transfusions or by sharing utensils; however, transmission actually occurs less than 10% of the time. Precautions are not needed to prevent transmission because of the high percentage of seropositivity for EBV. Infectious mononucleosis is self-limiting and typically lasts for two to three weeks. Nevertheless, symptoms can last for weeks and occasionally months.Symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly and fatigue. Symptom relief and rest are commonly recommended treatments. Steroids have been used for their anti-inflammatory effects, but there are no universal criteria for their use. The objectives of the review were to determine the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy versus placebo, usual care or different drug therapies for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. For this 2015 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015) and EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2015). We also searched trials registries, however we did not identify any new relevant completed or ongoing trials for inclusion. We combined the MEDLINE search with the Cochrane search strategy for identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We adapted the search terms when searching EMBASE. RCTs comparing the effectiveness of steroids with placebo, usual care, or other interventions for symptom control for people with documented infectious mononucleosis. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. For this 2015 update, we did not identify any new RCTs for inclusion. The previous version of the review included seven trials with a total of 362 participants. Four trials compared the effectiveness of a steroid to placebo for short-term symptom control in glandular fever, one to aspirin, and two trials explored the effects of steroids in conjunction with an antiviral. Heterogeneity between trials prevented a combined analysis.Trials under-reported methodological design features. Three trials did not adequately describe sequence generation for randomisation. Four trials provided adequate details of allocation concealment. All trials were double-blind but four were not specific as to who was blinded. Loss to follow-up was under-reported in four trials, making it difficult to exclude attrition bias. The risk of selective reporting in the included trials was unclear.Across the trials, no benefit was found in 8/10 assessments of health improvement. Two trials found benefit of steroid therapy over placebo in reducing sore throat at 12 hours (eight-day course odds ratio (OR) 21.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.94 to 227.20; one-dose OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.08 to 16.32), but the benefit was not maintained.In combination with an antiviral drug, participants in the steroid group had less pharyngeal discomfort between days two to four (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.08) compared to placebo. Across the trials the effects on other common symptoms were less clear. Two trials set out to measure safety; they documented no major adverse effects. In two other trials adverse events were reported, including respiratory distress and acute onset of diabetes. However, the association of the events with the steroid is not definite. There is insufficient evidence to the efficacy of steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. There is a lack of research on the side effects and long-term complications.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 6 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 118 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 2 2%
United States 1 <1%
Unknown 115 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 20 17%
Student > Bachelor 18 15%
Student > Postgraduate 12 10%
Researcher 11 9%
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 9%
Other 25 21%
Unknown 21 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 50 42%
Nursing and Health Professions 18 15%
Social Sciences 7 6%
Psychology 5 4%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 3%
Other 10 8%
Unknown 24 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 17. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 June 2017.
All research outputs
#817,586
of 12,612,419 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#2,724
of 10,376 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#25,134
of 275,336 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#93
of 248 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,612,419 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 10,376 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.2. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 73% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 275,336 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 248 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 62% of its contemporaries.