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Screening for potential prophylactics targeting sporozoite motility through the skin

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, August 2018
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Screening for potential prophylactics targeting sporozoite motility through the skin
Published in
Malaria Journal, August 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12936-018-2469-0
Pubmed ID

Ross G. Douglas, Miriam Reinig, Matthew Neale, Friedrich Frischknecht


Anti-malarial compounds have not yet been identified that target the first obligatory step of infection in humans: the migration of Plasmodium sporozoites in the host dermis. This movement is essential to find and invade a blood vessel in order to be passively transported to the liver. Here, an imaging screening pipeline was established to screen for compounds capable of inhibiting extracellular sporozoites. Sporozoites expressing the green fluorescent protein were isolated from infected Anopheles mosquitoes, incubated with compounds from two libraries (MMV Malaria Box and a FDA-approved library) and imaged. Effects on in vitro motility or morphology were scored. In vivo efficacy of a candidate drug was investigated by treating mice ears with a gel prior to infectious mosquito bites. Motility was analysed by in vivo imaging and the progress of infection was monitored by daily blood smears. Several compounds had a pronounced effect on in vitro sporozoite gliding or morphology. Notably, monensin sodium potently affected sporozoite movement while gramicidin S resulted in rounding up of sporozoites. However, pre-treatment of mice with a topical gel containing gramicidin did not reduce sporozoite motility and infection. This approach shows that it is possible to screen libraries for inhibitors of sporozoite motility and highlighted the paucity of compounds in currently available libraries that inhibit this initial step of a malaria infection. Screening of diverse libraries is suggested to identify more compounds that could serve as leads in developing 'skin-based' malaria prophylactics. Further, strategies need to be developed that will allow compounds to effectively penetrate the dermis and thereby prevent exit of sporozoites from the skin.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 5 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 14 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 14 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Other 2 14%
Researcher 2 14%
Student > Master 2 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 14%
Student > Bachelor 1 7%
Other 3 21%
Unknown 2 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 36%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 21%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 7%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 7%
Physics and Astronomy 1 7%
Other 2 14%
Unknown 1 7%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 September 2018.
All research outputs
of 13,807,706 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
of 3,993 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 269,249 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,807,706 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,993 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.6. This one is in the 34th percentile – i.e., 34% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 269,249 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them