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The first microbial environment of infants born by C-section: the operating room microbes

Overview of attention for article published in Microbiome, December 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (96th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (82nd percentile)

Mentioned by

3 news outlets
1 blog
30 tweeters
1 Wikipedia page

Readers on

164 Mendeley
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The first microbial environment of infants born by C-section: the operating room microbes
Published in
Microbiome, December 2015
DOI 10.1186/s40168-015-0126-1
Pubmed ID

Hakdong Shin, Zhiheng Pei, Keith A. Martinez, Juana I. Rivera-Vinas, Keimari Mendez, Humberto Cavallin, Maria G. Dominguez-Bello


Newborns delivered by C-section acquire human skin microbes just after birth, but the sources remain unknown. We hypothesized that the operating room (OR) environment contains human skin bacteria that could be seeding C-section born infants. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 11 sites in four operating rooms from three hospitals in two cities. Following a C-section procedure, we swabbed OR floors, walls, ventilation grids, armrests, and lamps. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of 44 samples using Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequences were analyzed using the QIIME pipeline. Only 68 % of the samples (30/44, >1000 sequences per site) yielded sufficient DNA reads to be analyzed. The bacterial content of OR dust corresponded to human skin bacteria, with dominance of Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Diversity of bacteria was the highest in the ventilation grids and walls but was also present on top of the surgery lamps. Beta diversity analyses showed OR dust bacterial content clustering first by city and then by hospital (t test using unweighted UniFrac distances, p < 0.05). We conclude that the dust from ORs, collected right after a C-section procedure, contains deposits of human skin bacteria. The OR microbiota is the first environment for C-section newborns, and OR microbes might be seeding the microbiome in these babies. Further studies are required to identify how this OR microbiome exposure contributes to the seeding of the neonatal microbiome. The results might be relevant to infant health, if the current increase in risk of immune and metabolic diseases in industrialized societies is related to lack of natural exposure to the vaginal microbiome during labor and birth.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 30 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 164 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 3 2%
Egypt 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
France 1 <1%
Japan 1 <1%
Tanzania, United Republic of 1 <1%
Croatia 1 <1%
Unknown 155 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 33 20%
Student > Master 30 18%
Researcher 29 18%
Student > Doctoral Student 14 9%
Other 10 6%
Other 33 20%
Unknown 15 9%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 45 27%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 32 20%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 19 12%
Immunology and Microbiology 16 10%
Nursing and Health Professions 6 4%
Other 25 15%
Unknown 21 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 49. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 October 2017.
All research outputs
of 14,579,947 outputs
Outputs from Microbiome
of 828 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 359,173 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Microbiome
of 73 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,579,947 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 97th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 828 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 38.5. This one has done well, scoring higher than 86% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 359,173 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 73 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 82% of its contemporaries.