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Microbiological testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics in Egypt

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Microbiology, December 2015
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1 tweeter
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47 Mendeley
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Title
Microbiological testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics in Egypt
Published in
BMC Microbiology, December 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12866-015-0609-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Hend Zeitoun, Mervat Kassem, Dina Raafat, Hamida AbouShlieb, Nourhan Fanaki

Abstract

Microbial contamination of pharmaceuticals poses a great problem to the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, especially from a medical as well as an economic point of view. Depending upon the product and its intended use, the identification of isolates should not merely be limited to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) indicator organisms. Eighty-five pre-used non-sterile pharmaceuticals collected from random consumers in Egypt were examined for the eventual presence of bacterial contaminants. Forty-one bacterial contaminants were isolated from 31 of the tested preparations. These isolates were subjected to biochemical identification by both conventional tests as well as API kits, which were sufficient for the accurate identification of only 11 out of the 41 bacterial contaminants (26.8 %) to the species level. The remaining isolates were inconclusively identified or showed contradictory results after using both biochemical methods. Using molecular methods, 24 isolates (58.5 %) were successfully identified to the species level. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were compared to standard biochemical methods in the detection of pharmacopoeial bacterial indicators in artificially-contaminated pharmaceutical samples. PCR-based methods proved to be superior regarding speed, cost-effectiveness and sensitivity. Therefore, pharmaceutical manufacturers would be advised to adopt PCR-based methods in the microbiological quality testing of pharmaceuticals in the future.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 47 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 47 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 13 28%
Student > Master 6 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 11%
Other 4 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 4%
Other 7 15%
Unknown 10 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 11 23%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 11 23%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 6%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 4%
Other 5 11%
Unknown 11 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 June 2019.
All research outputs
#12,109,919
of 15,226,555 outputs
Outputs from BMC Microbiology
#1,577
of 2,295 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#252,114
of 366,377 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Microbiology
#112
of 167 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,226,555 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,295 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.9. This one is in the 18th percentile – i.e., 18% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 366,377 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 18th percentile – i.e., 18% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 167 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 20th percentile – i.e., 20% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.