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Estimation of allele-specific Ace-1 duplication in insecticide-resistant Anopheles mosquitoes from West Africa

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, December 2015
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (53rd percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (51st percentile)

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3 tweeters

Citations

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Title
Estimation of allele-specific Ace-1 duplication in insecticide-resistant Anopheles mosquitoes from West Africa
Published in
Malaria Journal, December 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-1026-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Luc S. Djogbénou, Benoît Assogba, John Essandoh, Edi A. V. Constant, Michel Makoutodé, Martin Akogbéto, Martin J. Donnelly, David Weetman

Abstract

Identification of variation in Ace-1 copy number and G119S mutation genotype from samples of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii across West Africa are important diagnostics of carbamate and organophosphate resistance at population and individual levels. The most widespread and economical method, PCR-RFLP, suffers from an inability to discriminate true heterozygotes from heterozygotes with duplication. In addition to PCR-RFLP, in this study three different molecular techniques were applied on the same mosquito specimens: TaqMan qPCR, qRTPCR and ddPCR. To group heterozygous individuals recorded from the PCR-RFLP analysis into different assumptive genotypes K-means clustering was applied on the Z-scores of data obtained from both the TaqMan and ddPCR methods. The qRTPCR analysis was used for absolute quantification of copy number variation. The results indicate that most heterozygotes are duplicated and that G119S mutation must now be regarded as a complex genotype ranging from primarily single-copy susceptible Glycine homozygotes to balanced and imbalanced heterozygotes, and multiply-amplified resistant Serine allele homozygotes. Whilst qRTPCR-based gene copy analysis suffers from some imprecision, it clearly illustrates differences in copy number among genotype groups identified by TaqMan or ddPCR. Based on TaqMan method properties, and by coupling TaqMan and ddPCR methods simultaneously on the same type of mosquito specimens, it demonstrated that the TaqMan genotype assays associated with the K-means clustering algorithm could provide a useful semi-quantitative estimate method to investigate the level of allele-specific duplication in mosquito populations. Ace-1 gene duplication is evidently far more complex in An. gambiae and An. coluzzii than the better-studied mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, which consequently can no longer be considered an appropriate model for prediction of phenotypic consequences. These require urgent further evaluation in Anopheles. To maintain the sustained effectiveness carbamates and organophosphates as alternative products to pyrethroids for malaria vector control, monitoring of duplicated resistant alleles in natural populations is essential to guide the rational use of these insecticides.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 44 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Ireland 1 2%
Unknown 43 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 32%
Student > Bachelor 10 23%
Student > Master 5 11%
Researcher 3 7%
Other 3 7%
Other 6 14%
Unknown 3 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 16 36%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 11 25%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 7%
Engineering 2 5%
Computer Science 2 5%
Other 6 14%
Unknown 4 9%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 December 2015.
All research outputs
#4,447,345
of 9,183,188 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#2,007
of 3,184 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#138,000
of 319,513 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#80
of 170 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,183,188 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,184 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.1. This one is in the 33rd percentile – i.e., 33% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 319,513 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 53% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 170 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 51% of its contemporaries.