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Transforming growth factor-beta 1 produced by vascular smooth muscle cells predicts fibrosis in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral artery disease

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Translational Medicine, February 2016
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Title
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 produced by vascular smooth muscle cells predicts fibrosis in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral artery disease
Published in
Journal of Translational Medicine, February 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12967-016-0790-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Duy M. Ha, Lauren C. Carpenter, Panagiotis Koutakis, Stanley A. Swanson, Zhen Zhu, Mina Hanna, Holly K. DeSpiegelaere, Iraklis I. Pipinos, George P. Casale

Abstract

Lower leg ischemia, myopathy, and limb dysfunction are distinguishing features of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The myopathy of PAD is characterized by myofiber degeneration in association with extracellular matrix expansion, and increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1; a pro-fibrotic cytokine). In this study, we evaluated cellular expression of TGF-β1 in gastrocnemius of control (CTRL) and PAD patients and its relationship to deposited collagen, fibroblast accumulation and limb hemodynamics. Gastrocnemius biopsies were collected from PAD patients with claudication (PAD-II; N = 25) and tissue loss (PAD-IV; N = 20) and from CTRL patients (N = 20). TGF-β1 in slide-mounted specimens was labeled with fluorescent antibodies and analyzed by quantitative wide-field, fluorescence microscopy. We evaluated co-localization of TGF-β1 with vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) (high molecular weight caldesmon), fibroblasts (TE-7 antigen), macrophages (CD163), T cells (CD3) and endothelial cells (CD31). Collagen was stained with Masson Trichrome and collagen density was determined by quantitative bright-field microscopy with multi-spectral imaging. Collagen density increased from CTRL to PAD-II to PAD-IV specimens (all differences p < 0.05) and was prominent around microvessels. TGF-β1 expression increased with advancing disease (all differences p < 0.05), correlated with collagen density across all specimens (r = 0.864; p < 0.001), associated with fibroblast accumulation, and was observed exclusively in SMC. TGF-β1 expression inversely correlated with ankle-brachial index across PAD patients (r = -0.698; p < 0.001). Our findings support a progressive fibrosis in the gastrocnemius of PAD patients that is caused by elevated TGF-β1 production in the SMC of microvessels in response to tissue hypoxia.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 31 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Denmark 1 3%
Unknown 30 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 6 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 16%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 13%
Student > Bachelor 4 13%
Researcher 4 13%
Other 8 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 12 39%
Unspecified 5 16%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 16%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 10%
Engineering 2 6%
Other 4 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 February 2016.
All research outputs
#3,125,621
of 7,108,255 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Translational Medicine
#640
of 1,670 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#139,059
of 319,397 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Translational Medicine
#26
of 77 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,108,255 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 53rd percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,670 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.8. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 53% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 319,397 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 53% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 77 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its contemporaries.